Jasmonates are a group of native plant bioregulators that occur widely in the plant kingdom and exert various physiological activities when applied exogenously to plants. We investigated the effect of free jasmonic acid (JA) on stem and root growth and tuberization of potato in vitro nodal culture. Nodal cuttings of three potato cultivars, Norchip, Red Pontiac, and Russet Burbank, were cultured in 2.5 × 15 cm test tubes containing either nodal culture (MS with 2% sucrose) or tuber-inducing (MS with 8% sucrose and 11.5 μm kinetin) medium. The media were supplemented with JA at 0, 0.1, 0.5 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 50 m. The cultures were maintained under a 16-hour photoperiod at 24°C for 6 weeks. Potato cultivars showed different sensitivities to JA in stem growth. Norchip is the most and Red Pontiac the least sensitive cultivar. On the nodal culture medium, stem length of Norchip was promoted at 0.1–5 μm, and inhibited at 10–50 μm of JA, but that of Red Pontiac was promoted by JA at all concentrations tested. The number of nodes increased significantly on media with JA than that on medium without JA. The number of adventitious roots did not, but the lateral roots increased significantly when JA was added to the medium. On tuber-inducing media, stem length and node number did not appear to be affected by addition of JA to the medium. The number of axillary shoots increased significantly on the media with low concentrations of JA (0.1–5 μm). No microtubers formed on both media from all three cultivars in 6 weeks.
Zhen Zhang and Zong-Ming Cheng
Francis H. Witham, Charles W. Heuser, and Jun Chen
Ethidium bromide (EB), at 10-5 to 10-4 M, progressively inhibits NAA-induced rooting of mung bean cuttings. Cycloheximide (CH), 6-methylpurine (6-MP) and kinetin (KIN) also inhibited rooting at the same concentrations, although CH and 6-MP were more effective.
At 70 and up to 130 hours of incubation, after cuttings received a 1-ml pulse of NAA (10-4 M), they exhibited a progressive increase in the number of observed adventitious roots. The addition of one of the inhibitors, 6-MP, EB or KIN to cuttings, pulsed 48 hours earlier with NAA, showed an initial slight inhibition with increased inhibition over time. CH, however, inhibited rooting immediately after addition. From these and other similar kinetic studies, it appears that 6-MP, EB and KIN operate at the transcriptional level and that CH inhibits translation.
Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis of NAA-induced rooting inhibition showed that EB may act as a competitive inhibitor of NAA. Since EB is a known intercalating agent and competitively inhibits NAA-induced rooting, NAA may influence gene expression by ultimately binding to DNA. Studies with space-filling and computer-generated models show that both NAA and EB can bind to certain dinucleotides by an intercalation mechanism.
Sarah E. Bruce and D. Bradley Rowe
Propagation failures of Taxus are often attributed to cutting collection from stock plants of poor quality. If a quick, reliable method of determining the potential rooting of cuttings based on the condition of a specific stock plant was available for propagators, rooting success could be predicted before investing time, labor, and resources. Our studies examined chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) as a potential tool for stock plant selection, assessment of storage conditions, and measurement of stress over the course of propagation. Ten cultivars of Taxus × media (Taxus baccata L. × T. cuspidata Sieb. & Zucc.) were used: Brownii, Dark Green Pyramidalis, Dark Green Spreader, Densiformis, Densiformis Gem, Hicksii, L.C. Bobbink, Runyan, Tauntoni, and Wardii. Storage condition treatments consisted of desiccation (low, medium, and high), duration (34, 70, and 107 days), and temperature (–30, –2.5, 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 °C). Cultivars differed in Fv/Fm initially as well as over time. Correlations were not found between initial stock plant Fv/Fm and rooting percentage, number of roots, root dry weight, or root length, indicating that Fv/Fm is not a reliable indicator of stock plant propagation potential. Short storage duration at –2.5 to 2.5 °C was found to be ideal. Fv/Fm could detect substandard storage conditions only at temperature and desiccation extremes. Although chlorophyll fluorescence measurements do not appear to be a practical method of predicting adventitious rooting, there is a potential for assessing cutting or plant quality before shipping.
Brian K. Maynard and Nina L. Bassuk
Three experiments were undertaken to examine the effect of stockplant etiolation, shading, and stem banding, prior to cutting propagation, on the auxin dose-response of rooting in stem cuttings of Carpinus betulus `fastigiata'. A 2 × 2 factorial of etiolation and banding utilized stockplants forced in a greenhouse, etiolated for 1 week and banded with Velcro™ for 1 month. In a separate study shading was applied up the time of harvesting cuttings. IBA was applied to cuttings as an aqueous ethanol quick dip in concentrations ranging from 0 to 80 mM. Rooting percentage and number were best described, up to a peak response, by a linear function proportional to the logarithm of applied IBA. The inhibition of rooting by supra-optimal IBA was directly proportional to IBA concentration. Cuttings prepared from shoots which had been etiolated or banded rooted better at low IBA and at their respective optimal IBA levels. Cuttings from shoots receiving both etiolation and banding yielded higher rooting percentages and more roots per rooted cutting on average. Etiolation and banding served to increase both initial and maximum rooting capacities, and to reduce the sensitivity of cuttings to supraoptimal auxin-induced inhibition of adventitious root initiation. The auxin dose-response interacted with shading to yield the best rooting at 95% shade and 3.7 mM IBA.
S. Guzman, H. Alejandro, J. Farias, A. Michel, and G. Lopez
Watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) is a widely grown crop throughout the tropics and subtropics. In Mexico, it is an economically important crop. In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of watermelon has been reported from shoot tip culture, leaf, hypocotyl, and cotyledons. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro plant regeneration from axillary buds of triploid watermelon. Axillary buds explants were prepared from shoot of commercial cultivar in field of 60 old day plants. Explants of 2 to 3 mm were incubated 2 weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) shoot regeneration medium containing 2.5 mg/L kinetin (KT) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), or gibberellic acid (GA3), followed by 3 weeks on shoot elongation medium supplemented with different combinations of the same phytohormones. The percentage of explants (83% to 90%) that produced shoots, expansion in size of explant (0.81–1 cm) and shoot length (6 mm) were highest in MS medium containing KT or IBA. In the shoot elongation step, shoot length (0.9–1 cm) and leaves number (6–7) were highest in MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L of KT or GA3 and 0.2 mg/L IBA, but the better induction of roots in elongated shoot occurred on MS medium with 2.5 mg/L KT and 0.2 mg/L IBA. The results show that axillary buds from watermelon is an alternative for the micropropagation of this crop.
William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow
is thought by many North Carolina growers to allow for transplants to produce adventitious roots before planting in the production field (J. Jones, personal communication). These growers believe that transplants that have been held to initiate
Mohamed S. Elmongy, Xiuyun Wang, Hong Zhou, and Yiping Xia
root formation ( Davies et al., 1994 ). The roles of exogenously applied auxins and HA in the formation of adventitious roots have been previously described ( Zandonadi et al., 2007 ). In our previous study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of HA and
J. Naalamle Amissah, Dominick J. Paolillo Jr, and Nina Bassuk
sclerenchyma ring as a barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots, it is a known fact that where extensive sclerification takes place within the cortex, rooting generally does not occur ( Maynard and Bassuk, 1996 ; White and Lovell, 1984 ). However, it is
Simone da Costa Mello, Jéssika Angelotti-Mendonça, Lucas Baiochi Riboldi, Luigi Tancredi Campo Dall’Orto, and Eduardo Suguino
factors, such as light and temperature, and internal factors, such as nutrition, age, and plant hormonal balance ( Hartmann et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, the physiological age of the plant material affects the promotion of adventitious roots in some species
L. Xu, G.F. Liu, and M.Z. Bao
microshoots after culture for 8 weeks (bar, 5 mm). ( E ) Plant of L. formosana , 40 d after being transplanted to soil (bar, 1 cm). For P6, no adventitious shoots were obtained on WPM without PGR, but a few roots developed (data not shown