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David Del Pozo-Insfran, Christopher E. Duncan, Kristine C. Yu, Stephen T. Talcott, and Craig K. Chandler

The effects of cultivar, harvest date, and production year on the soluble solids and antioxidant phytochemical levels of 22 strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) genotypes grown in a winter annual hill (raised bed) production system were investigated. Fruit harvested in Jan. 2003 and 2004 were characterized by low polyphenolic content, but high concentrations of soluble solids and ascorbic acid; whereas fruit harvested in Feb. 2003 and 2004 generally had elevated polyphenolic concentrations, but lower levels of soluble solids and ascorbic acid. Annual variation in soluble solids and phytochemical composition was also observed among nine strawberry genotypes, which was likely attributable to variations in solar radiation and air temperature. `Earlibrite' was among the highest for soluble solids concentration on three of the four harvest dates, while `Carmine' was noted for its high phytochemical concentrations across harvest dates and years. The breeder selection `FL 99-117' emerged as a promising selection in terms of producing fruit with high concentrations of soluble solids and antioxidant phytochemicals.

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Paul T. Karlovich and David S. Koranski

Fifteen lots of impatiens representing five cultivars were used to evaluate the potential of a soak test for predicting the performance of impatiens seeds in plug-production systems. This test would be valuable in breeding programs because it is non-destructive, seed-specific, inexpensive, fast, and does not require large numbers of seed. The soak test submerged individual seeds in one ml distilled water during germination. The results of this test were compared to standard blotter germination and to plug tray performance in the Iowa State University greenhouse and at two commercial greenhouses. Different responses to the soak test were found among lots and cultivars but the differences could not be correlated to the plug tray performance of the seeds. The responses to the soak test do not appear to be genetically related for these cultivars.

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Brent L. Black

Balancing vegetative growth with fruiting is a primary concern in strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) production. Where nursery plant selection and preconditioning are inadequate for runner control, additional approaches are needed. The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor prohexadione-Ca (commercial formulation Apogee) was tested over two seasons for suppressing fall runners of `Chandler' plug plants in a cold-climate annual hill production system. Prohexadione-Ca was applied as a foliar spray at active ingredient concentrations ranging from 60 to 480 mg·L-1, either as a single application 1 week after planting, or repeated at 3-week intervals. The lowest rate resulted in inadequate runner control, with some runners producing malformed daughter plants. Higher rates resulted in 57% to 93% reductions in fall runner numbers, with a concomitant increase in fall branch crown formation. There were no effects of the prohexadione-Ca treatments on plant morphology the following spring, and no adverse effects on fruit characteristics or yield. Chemical names used: prohexadione-calcium, calcium 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-3-cyclohexene-carboxylate.

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Ibrahim I. Tahir and Hilde Nybom

A series of pre- and post-harvest experiments were conducted to enhance apple tree productivity and improve fruit quality and storage life by altering production system and post-harvest treatments in an organic orchard. Increasing the light distribution and carbohydrate uptake (summer pruning and covering the orchard ground with reflective textile) improved tree productivity, fruit color, content of anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, and total phenolic compounds and reduced incidence of fungal storage diseases. Optimal harvesting time could be determined from the starch index in some cultivars, whereas the Streif index [firmness (soluble solids concentration × starch hydrolysis score)−1] was more accurate for other cultivars. In yet others, titratable acidity and flesh firmness also produced important information. By contrast, soluble solids concentration and skin color are not useful as a result of their sensitivity to weather conditions and light intensity. Post-harvest fruit treatment with hot water (46 °C for 120 seconds) decreased fungal decay during storage in two cultivars, whereas spraying the fruit with 10% ethanol decreased fungal decay in all investigated cultivars. Optimization of storage conditions [cultivar-specific controlled atmosphere (CA) and ultra-low oxygen (ULO) storage procedures] maintained fruit quality and reduced the amount of fungal decay.

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G.T. Berg and R.K. Striegler

The availability and cost of labor are important concerns for many California wine grape growers. Greater state and federal labor regulations, increased grower liability, increased efforts to control illegal immigration, and mandated increases in the minimum wage are causing growers to investigate production systems that may reduce labor requirements and costs. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the influence of training system and mechanization on vegetative growth, yield, fruit composition, labor requirements, and production costs for wine grapes grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Barbera vines grafted on Freedom rootstock were used in the experiment. Treatment variables examined were training system (bilateral cordon, non-positioned vs. bilateral cordon, vertical shoot positioned) and pruning method (hand vs. machine pre-pruning with hand follow-up). The experimental design used was a randomized complete block with data analyzed as a factorial. There were five blocks and all treatment combinations were evaluated. Data were collected during the 1994 and 1995 seasons for vegetative growth, yield, fruit composition, pruning labor requirements, and machinery performance. Few treatment effects were observed on vegetative growth, yield, and fruit composition during the course of this study. When significant differences were noted for these parameters, training system had a greater impact than pruning method. In contrast, labor requirements and production costs displayed a significant response to pruning method. Machine pre-pruning reduced pruning labor requirements from 41 man-hours per acre to 24–28 man-hours per acre per year. Pruning labor requirements were reduced by ≈40% and the costs associated with pruning were reduced by ≈30%.

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Hannah M. Mathers, Elizabeth Grosskurth, Michele Bigger, Luke Case, and Jenny Pope

Currently, the majority of tree liners used in the Ohio nursery industry are imported, mainly from the West Coast. The Ohio growing season is 156 days, whereas the Oregon season is 225 days. We are developing an Ohio liner production system, utilizing a retractable roof greenhouse (RRG) that extends the growing season. Liners grown in a RRG have shown greater caliper, height, and root and shoot dry weight than those grown outside of a RRG (Stoven, 2004). The objective of this research was to compare the growth of RRG-grown liners, outdoor-grown liners, and West Coast-grown liners when planted in the field. Four tree species [Quercus rubra, Malus `Prairifire', Acer ×freemannii `Jeffersred' (Autumn Blaze®), and Cercis canadensis] were started from either seed or rooted cuttings in early 2003. They were grown in a glass greenhouse and then moved to their respective environments in March (RRG) and May (outside). In Oct. 2003, the Ohio-grown liners were planted in the field at the Waterman Farm of The Ohio State University, Columbus. In Spring 2004, liners from the West Coast were purchased and planted in the same field setting. Caliper and height were measured in June and Sept. 2004. After one season in the field, trees grown from the RRG and outdoor environments resulted in greater height and caliper than the West Coast liners in Malus, Acer, and Cercis. Acer liners from Oregon had a greater increase in height from June to September than those grown outdoors or in the RRG. Quercus liners from the RRG and outdoor environments displayed greater caliper growth and growth in height than those from the West Coast. Across all species, liners grown from the RRG had the greatest increase in caliper growth.

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Robin G. Brumfield, Laura B. Kenny, Alyssa J. DeVincentis, Andrew K. Koeser, Sven Verlinden, A.J. Both, Guihong Bi, Sarah T. Lovell, and J. Ryan Stewart

targeting customers who consider environmental impacts ( Russo and Fouts, 1997 ). Sustainable practices that use renewable and biodegradable inputs in floricultural production systems constitute an area of growing interest to consumers and producers alike

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Lucas G. Paranhos, Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Tatiana Borisova, Rebecca Darnell, and Kati Migliaccio

) systems. The costs of the bare ground cabbage production system for the northeast Florida region were based on the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences production budget ( VanSickle, 2008 ) that was updated with current market

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Bernadine C. Strik, Amanda J. Vance, and Chad E. Finn

were similar to what has been observed in conventional production systems. Literature Cited Almutairi, K. 2016 Water and soil management practices to enhance plant growth, berry development, and fruit quality of northern highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium

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Jeffrey R. Pieper, Rebecca Nelson Brown, and José A. Amador

and cover cropping would fit into their diverse production systems, particularly without the use of herbicides. The objective of this study was to evaluate three reduced tillage and cover crop strategies in an intensive mixed vegetable system. Methods