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Eleni Tsantili, Miltiadis V. Christopoulos, Constantinos A. Pontikis, Pantousis Kaltsikes, Chariklia Kallianou, and Michalis Komaitis

per tree were collected to determine Ca and magnesium (Mg) concentrations. A few hours before the final fruit harvest, photosynthesis rate was measured on four single attached, mature leaves per tree. On the same day, ≈100 leaves per tree were selected

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Stephen A. Prior, G. Brett Runion, S. Christopher Marble, Hugo H. Rogers, Charles H. Gilliam, and H. Allen Torbert

relations with a focus toward implications for horticultural production systems with suggestions for future research areas. PLANT GROWTH Carbon dioxide links the atmosphere to the biosphere and is an essential substrate for photosynthesis. Elevated CO 2

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Ved Parkash and Sukhbir Singh

. Reduction in these metabolic activities leads to inhibition of photosynthesis activity ( Sahin et al., 2018 ). Additionally, under salinity stress, an increased accumulation of salts in the cells increases the cell wall permeability, which causes substantial

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Lu Zhang, Xiuming Hao, Yonggeng Li, and Gaoming Jiang

on the fifth fully expanded leaf with a LI-COR 6400 portable photosynthesis system equipped with a 6400-02B light-emitting diode light source and a 6400-01 CO 2 injector system (LI-COR). The system can control light, temperature, humidity, and CO 2

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Jinmin Fu and Peter H. Dernoeden

sheaths, including photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon translocation, are major physiological processes that form the basis of healthy plant function. Creeping bentgrass summer performance may be improved by maximizing carbohydrate production through

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Daniel Warnock, William Randle, and Mark Rieger

Photosynthesis is the very essence of agriculture. Previous photosynthetic and transpirational studies of onion (Allium cepa) have been limited to specific developmental stages. Our study measured photosynthesis and transpiration in sixteen plants of a single short-day cultivar over an eleven week period containing both non- and bulb inductive photoperiods. Differences in weekly means for photosynthesis, leaf conductance, water use efficiency, and intercellular CO, were highly significant. Weekly photosynthetic means increased under a non-inductive photoperiod and peaked one week after initiating a bulb inducing photoperiod. A decrease and leveling period occurred as bulbs developed followed by a decrease as foliage lodged. Weekly photosynthetic and leaf conductance means were correlated and highly significant. Water use efficiency and intercellular CO, means remained fairly constant throughout the study suggesting that photosynthesis in unstressed onions was controlled by internal mechanisms instead of stomata.

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Geoffrey M. Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

the longevity of these effects or determine how they might affect photosynthesis and transpiration beyond the first few days after application because the plants were not rewatered. Without irrigation, drought causes stomatal closure, making it

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Youping Sun, Liqin Li, Yuxiang Wang, and Xin Dai

exhibit reduced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance ( g S ) and nutrient imbalance, especially calcium deficiency ( Munns and Tester, 2008 ). Salt-tolerant plants have a better ability to adjust internally to the osmotic effects of high salinity levels

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T.R. Willard, C.M. Peacock, and D.G. Shilling

The effects of sethoxydim, cloproxydim, and fluazifop on photosynthesis and growth of St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze `Floralawn'], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum var. saurae Parodi `Pensacola'), and centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack.] were evaluated to determine if photosynthesis could be used as a rapid, nondestructive measure of relative susceptibility. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted using infrared CO2 analysis to estimate photosynthesis. Under field conditions, St. Augustinegrass was susceptible to sethoxydim and fluazifop applications, as indicated by a 40% and 38% reduction in apparent photosynthesis, respectively. Bahiagrass incurred a respective 62% and 51% reduction in apparent photosynthesis from sethoxydim and fluazifop application. Growth of these species, as measured by foliage dry weight, was also inhibited by both herbicides. Centipedegrass growth was unaffected by sethoxydim, but was reduced 48% by fluazifop. Under greenhouse conditions, centipedegrass apparent photosynthesis was reduced by sethoxydim and cloproxydim (41% and 51%, respectively), while fluazifop caused a 71% reduction. Growth of centipedegrass was significantly reduced only by fluazifop (83%). These studies indicated that in vivo photosynthetic measurements may provide a sensitive, rapid, and nondestructive method for determining the susceptibility of turfgrasses to postemergence grass herbicides. chemical names used: 2-[1-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio) propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-l-one (sethoxydim); (E,E) -2-[1-[[(3-chloro-2-propenyl) oxy]imino]butyl] -5-[2-(ethylthio) propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-l-one (cloproxydim); and butyl ester of 2-[4-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]-propanoate(fluazifop).

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Rashad M. Balal, Muhammad M. Khan, Muhammad A. Shahid, Neil S. Mattson, Tahira Abbas, Muhammad Ashfaq, Franscisco Garcia-Sanchez, Usman Ghazanfer, Vicente Gimeno, and Zafar Iqbal

, and various physiobiochemical mechanisms; i.e., photosynthesis, g S and transpiration ( Garcia-Sanchez and Syvertsen, 2006 ; Garcia-Sanchez et al., 2006 ). Citrus rootstocks may play an important role with regard to the emerging threat of soil