`SuperMac' (Malus ×domestica Borkh) is being released as a replacement for `Spartan', which is presently being grown in Eastern Canada for its excellent shelf life. However, it is susceptibility to scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cke) Wint.], the most common apple disease. This new cultivar produces larger fruit than `Spartan' and is resistant to apple scab. It is very attractive (Fig. 1), has a pleasant taste and an excellent shelf life, and keeps very well and longer compared with the `Spartan'. `SuperMac' is a `McIntosh'-type apple. The tree is hardy to –30 °C, and the fruit and leaves are resistant to the common races of apple scab resulting from the presence of the V f gene derived from Malus floribunda 821.
Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Yvon Groleau, Audrey Levasseur, Odile Carisse, Djamila Rekika, Jennifer DeEll, Jean-Pierre Privé, Inteaz Alli, and Henk Kemp
Djamila Rekika, Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Martine Deschênes, Audrey Levasseur, Marie Thérèse Charles, Rong Tsao, and Raymond Yang
Eighteen strawberry genotypes were evaluated for their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity using several methods. High antioxidant capacity was found for `Harmonie', `Saint-Jean d'Orléans', and `Saint-Laurent d'Orléans', which were reported to have better shelf life than `Kent'. `Harmonie', `Saint-Jean d'Orléans', `Orléans', and some advanced selections had higher hydroxycinnamic acids, benzoic acids, and flavonols than `Kent'. The significant variation in antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds clearly shows the potential value of certain new cultivars and advanced lines as parents in a breeding program. The future plan is to examine individual antioxidant and their role in disease resistance and extension of shelf life and to use selected genotypes as parents to developed new lines.
James N. Moore
Expansion of blueberry culture in North America has occurred during the past decade and is projected to continue into the next century. Thirty-six U.S. states and six Canadian provinces report some blueberry production. The area planted to blueberries has inreased by 19% in 10 years, with the largest increase (47%) in cultivated types and only 11% in wild blueberries. It is projected that the total area will increase by an additional 14% by the year 2000. New cultivars are proving of value and are affecting the composition of plantings. Greater interest is being given to mechanical harvesting, and new cultural and pest control innovations are being employed to enhance the economics of production. The expansion of blueberry production is being undergirded by expanded programs in problem-solving research.
James N. Moore
The blueberry cultivar situation in North America is undergoing rapid change. Attempts to grow blueberries in non-traditional areas, and increased biotic and abiotic challenges in traditional production areas, are fueling the search for superior, adapted cultivars. This survey of all blueberry-producing states/provinces in the United States and Canada provides the current status and projected trends in blueberry cultivar use in North America. Most (86%) of current hectarage is comprised of 25 northern highbush, 10 rabbiteye, and two southern highbush cultivars. `Bluecrop' is the dominant northern highbush cultivar, with 35% of the highbush area, while `Tifblue' occupies 40% of the rabbiteye area. Some historically important cultivars, such as `Jersey', `Weymouth', and `Woodard' are in decline. New cultivars of all blueberry types are beginning to have a positive impact on the blueberry industry.
Duane W. Greene and Wesley R. Autio
There is a general increase in interest in planting new apple cultivars. The loss of daminozide has provided an additional stimulus for growers in New England to find an alternative to McIntosh. Promising new apple cultivars have been identified from around the world and from breeding programs in Arkansas, British Columbia, New York, New Jersey and the PRI Program. Trees were propagated and planted in a cultivar evaluation block at the University of Massachusetts Horticultural Research Center. In 1992 we evaluated over 80 new cultivars. Fruit assessment consisted of laboratory analysis and visual and sensory evaluation. All cultivar were given an overall rating, and several were identified as being worthy of further evaluation. These apple cultivars include: Arlet, BC 9P 14-32, BC 8M 15-10, BC 17-30, Ginger Gold, Honeycrisp, Kinsei, NJ 55, NY 75414-1, and Sansa.
Joseph H. Connell and Richard L. Snyder
Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) cultivars vary in tolerance to cold with flowers at pink bud more tolerant than at full bloom or than small nuts. Branch samples 60 cm long with 30-100 blossoms or nuts were cut, sprayed with water, and artifically frozen. Subsamples were removed after exposure to 4 to 6 successively lower temperatures for 30 minutes. After 48 hours of ambient temperatures, flowers or small nuts were sectioned and examined for visual evidence of injury. Of the early cultivars, `Peerless', is most sensitive at full bloom and `Sonora' is most hardy. `Sonora' is especially hardy at pink bud. `NePlus Ultra' is intermediate. Of the mid-blooming cultivars, `Carmel' is most sensitive to cold while `Nonpareil' is most tolerant. `Price' is intermediate. The late blooming cultivar, 'Mission' is most sensitive while 'Padre' and 'Butte' appear similar. This study compared several popular new cultivars to older industry standards.
The Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has released a new pinkeye purple hull-type southernpea cultivar for the fresh market. The new cultivar, Quickpick, originated from a cross between breeding lines LA 88-74 and LA 88-9. `Quickpick' has a bush-type plant habit with synchronous pod set and is suitable for either machine- or hand-harvest. Pods of `Quickpick' are straight, ≈20 cm long, and about 8 mm in diameter. Fresh peas are green with a light-pink eye. Yield of `Quickpick' equaled or surpassed yield of `Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull' in machine-harvested replicated tests. In hand-harvested replicated tests, yield of `Quickpick' was comparable to `Texas Pinkeye Purple Hull', `Coronet', `Pinkeye Purple Hull-BVR', `Mississippi Pinkeye', and `Santee Early Pinkeye'. `Quickpick' is immune to a Georgia isolate of blackeye cowpea mosaic virus, a major virus of southernpea in the United States.
Margaret J. Makinde, Adenike O. Olufolahji, and Olanrewaju A. Denton
A total of 45 varieties of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were evaluated for earliness in fruiting and high fruit yield. In Nigeria selection in okra is for large, spiny fruit with high drawing ability. So far the variety (cultivar) NHAC 47-4 has been well-accepted by both the Nigerian farmers and consumers. It fruit within 42 days and draws and retains fresh color when boiled. These new cultivars, NHAC147 and NHAC 148, were found to fruit within 38 to 40 days and they are of comparable yield of up to 40 fruit per plants. They were found to be drought-tolerant and carry fruit of up to five of same age and size-high degree of uniformity. They are therefore being recommended because they have short stems and NHAC148 has fewer spines than NHAC47-4 AND NHAC 147.
John R. Clark, James N. Moore, and Penelope Perkins-Veazie
`White Rock' and `White County' fresh market peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) were released in 2004 by the University of Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station. These cultivars join `White River' as recent products of the peach breeding program which is based at the University of Arkansas Fruit Substation, Clarksville. Both cultivars are sub- or low-acid types and have white flesh. `White Rock' ripens at on average 25 June, and is very firm at maturity. Average fruit weight was 142 g with 12% soluble solids and light white peach flavor. `White County' ripens on average 14 July. It is large fruited with average weight of 258 g and maintains firmness until full maturity. The fruits are freestone with an excellent white peach flavor. Both cultivars show good bacterial spot resistance although occasional lesions are seen on leaves. These new cultivars offer additional white peach cultivar choices for the mid-South and other areas of similar climate.
Andrew R. Jamieson and Katherine Sanford
Twelve clones of `Blomidon' strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) exhibiting a range of severity of June Yellows symptoms were grown in field plots to measure effects on productivity. Field plot layout was a randomized block design with four blocks. Plots were matted rows developed from five plants spaced at 45 cm inrow. Fruit samples were frozen and later analyzed for soluble solids concentration, total acidity, and pH. In the greenhouse, self-pollinated seedlings grown from these clones were rated for symptom expression as an additional measure of severity of June Yellows. Large differences in marketable yields were recorded, ranging from 1.94 t·ha–1 to 14.67 t·ha–1. Clones with severe symptoms produced smaller fruit. Small clonal differences were measured in total acidity and pH. A strong correlation was observed between the percentage of symptomless seedlings and the yield of the parental clone. This may lead to a test to predict whether a new cultivar will succumb to June Yellows.