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Allison Hurt, Roberto G. Lopez, and Joshua K. Craver

increased dry mass accumulation for many plant species because more surface area is available for light interception ( Van Ieperen et al., 2012 ; Wollaeger and Runkle, 2015). Thus, increased dry mass accumulation under HPS SL in our study was likely linked

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David R. Bryla, Thomas J. Trout, and James E. Ayars

grapevines, and have found that K cb is often linearly correlated to canopy light interception or shaded area ( Johnson et al., 2000 , 2002 ; Trout et al., 2008 ; Williams and Ayars, 2005 ). Generalized relationships of this sort would allow weather

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Brent Rowell and Mar Lar Soe

dependent on crop growth, height, and architecture ( Allen et al., 1998 ) and highly correlated with leaf area index and light interception/canopy shading by the crop ( Williams and Ayars, 2005 ; Williams et al., 2003 ). Lysimeter studies have demonstrated

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Madeline Wimmer, Beth Ann Workmaster, and Amaya Atucha

reflect less light interception in the fruiting zone. In fact, with respect to fruit SSC and TA, there were very few differences among the training systems in our study, despite the differences in yield. This supports the hypothesis that higher canopy

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Tiffany L. Law and Gregory A. Lang

producing high quality fruit include 1) good light interception and distribution by the canopy, 2) a balanced leaf to fruit ratio ( Lang, 2005 ), and 3) renewable fruit-bearing sites on minimal permanent structure. A good high-density training system should

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D. Michael Glenn and Michael J. Newell

light interception was measured in July of 1999 through 2001 before summer pruning. Light transmission through the canopy was measured at 25-, 50-, 75-, and 100-cm distances from the tree at ground level on the north and south sides of the tree. Data

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David R. Rudell, Sara Serra, Nathanael Sullivan, James P. Mattheis, and Stefano Musacchi

( Kappel and Neilsen, 1994 ; Zhang et al., 2016 ). For instance, dry matter accumulation within the tree is a function of light interception and orchard design ( Palmer, 1988 ; Wünsche et al., 1996 ). In apple, pear, avocado, and kiwifruit, the sun

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Huijie Zeng, Yun Li, Jianjun Chen, Xiaoming Wang, Zhongquan Qiao, Yongxin Li, Neng Cai, and Sisi Liu

, plants should be pruned at least once a year to remove damaged, structurally unsound, and nonproductive branches to make the plant into an umbrella shape for better light interception. Thus far, no disease and pest problems have been reported on ‘Fenglei

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Mark G. Lefsrud, Dean A. Kopsell, and Carl E. Sams

effects on leaves of white clover: Consequences for light interception by the plant under competition for light Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 88 737 743 Hoenecke, M.E. Bula, R.J. Tibbitts, T.W. 1992 Importance of ‘Blue

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Michael W. Smith

; long. 35.96653°N, lat. 96.10077°W). Trees in the study had been under continuous management for more than 40 years. Distance between canopies indicated that light interception and area for canopy development were not restricted by adjacent trees. At