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Bielinski M. Santos

A two-season study was conducted to assess the effects of preplant potassium (K) fertilization rates and sources on the growth and yield of beefsteak tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Fourteen treatments resulted from the combination of two K sources: sulfate of potash [SOP (0N–0P–42K)] and muriate of potash [MOP (potassium chloride, 0N–0P–50K)] and seven preplant K rates (0, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 lb/acre). Soil electrical conductivity (EC) at 4 weeks after transplanting was influenced by the interaction between preplant K rates and sources. When SOP was applied, soil EC increased from 0.4 dS·m−1 with no preplant K application to ≈1.3 dS·m−1 with a rate of 500 lb/acre of preplant K. However, the soil EC steadily increased from 0.4 to 3.0 dS·m−1 as preplant K rates increased from 0 to 500 lb/acre when MOP was used as the nutrient source. The combined effect of the preplant application of K rates and sources influenced the seasonal extra-large and total marketable fruit weight, which increased steadily with K rates, regardless of the sources, from 0 to 300 lb/acre. At K rates between 300 and 500 lb/acre, there were no extra-large and total fruit weight differences among rates when SOP was applied. In contrast, extra-large and total marketable fruit weight declined when rates increased from 300 to 500 lb/acre of K and MOP was applied to the soil. Data demonstrated that plots treated with MOP at rates higher than 300 lb/acre of K increased soil EC and caused a decline on extra-large and total marketable fruit weight of tomato.

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Joseph P. Albano, Donald J. Merhaut, Eugene K. Blythe, and Julie P. Newman

Nutrient release characteristics of four different controlled-release fertilizers (Osmocote, Nutricote, Polyon, and Multicote) were monitored during an 11-month period in a simulated outdoor nursery production facility. Although no plants were used in the experiment, fertilization rates, irrigation regimes, and cultural practices simulated those typically used to produce fast-growing, high-nutrient-requiring containerized woody ornamentals. Fertilizer prill release characteristics were monitored through analyses of leachates, which were collected weekly. Concentrations of Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Mo were relatively high during the first 5 to 10 weeks of the experiment, then declined and usually stabilized during the remainder of the study. However, Mn and Zn displayed erratic increases in concentrations several times throughout the study. Calcium concentrations did not increase until the fifth week, rapidly peaked to about 300 mg·L–1, and then decreased and leveled off to ≈80 to 100 mg·L–1 during the remainder of the study. Several significant differences were observed between treatments. The Osmocote treatment had significantly greater Ca and Mg concentrations in the leachate than the other fertilizer types during the last 6 weeks of the study, whereas the Nutricote treatment often had significantly greater Fe concentrations than leachates from other treatments, especially during the last 26 to 35 weeks of the study, and significantly greater Zn concentrations than the other CRFs during the last 21 weeks of the study. Based upon U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines, concentrations of Fe were often more than the allowable limit of 0.3 mg·L–1 with all fertilizer types, but especially with Nutricote. Concentrations of Mn and Cu also exceeded federal guidelines, particularly during the first several weeks of the study.

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Ivan dos Santos Pereira, Luciano Picolotto, Michél Aldrighi Gonçalves, Gerson Kleinick Vignolo, and Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes

The objective of this study was to evaluate the floricane leaf nutrient content, vegetative growth, and yield of two blackberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars (Tupy and Xavante), in response to rate of potassium (K) fertilization (0.0, 2.1, 4.2, 6.2, or 8.3 g/plant of K). The research was conducted in a region of low chill (342 chill hours) in southern Brazil (lat. 31°40′ 46.98 S, long. 52°26′ 4.36 W), and soil with pH 5.9, organic matter (OM) 1.1% and K 58.0 g·m−3. In 2009, only calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) leaf concentration were affected by K application, and leaf K level was considered below normal for blackberry in Brazil. In 2010 and 2011, leaf K of blackberry in Brazil increased linearly in both cultivars with an increase in applied K. However, leaf K of blackberry in Brazil only reached its recommended levels for optimal growth in 2010 with the application of 2.1 and 8.3 g/plant of K for ‘Tupy’ and ‘Xavante’, respectively. In 2011, an antagonistic relationship was seen between leaf nitrogen (N)/K and K/Ca and K/Mg ratios with increasing K rates, where increasing K rates were accompanied by a linear decrease in the N/K ratio and a linear increase in the K/Ca and K/Mg ratios. Micronutrients evaluated showed no significant response to applied rates of K. A decrease in floricane leaf concentration of phosphorus (P), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) was also observed over years of the study. Potassium fertilization rates influenced the vegetative growth of blackberries. ‘Tupy’ showed increased cane density and pruning weights with increased rates of K application up to 8.3 g/plant, whereas cane density was optimized in ‘Xavante’ at 4.2 g/plant. The fruit yield of ‘Tupy’ and ‘Xavante’ increased linearly with K application per plant in all three years, indicating that K fertilization may be limiting the yield potential of these cultivars. These results suggest that the current K fertilizer recommendations may need to be increased for optimal production in Brazil.

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Charles R. Hall and Dewayne Ingram

University researchers have recently quantified the value of carbon sequestration provided by landscape trees (, ). However, no study to date has captured the economic costs of component horticultural systems while conducting a life cycle assessment of any green industry product. This study attempts to fill that void. The nursery production system modeled in this study was a field-grown, 5-cm (2-in) caliper Cercis canadensis ‘Forest Pansy’ in the Lower Midwest. Partial budgeting modeling procedures were also used to measure the sensitivity of related costs and potential benefits associated with short-run changes in cultural practices in the production systems analyzed (e.g., transport distance, post-harvest activities, fertilization rates, and plant mortality). Total variable costs for the seedling and liner stages combined amounted to $2.93 per liner, including $1.92 per liner for labor, $0.73 for materials, and $0.27 per liner for equipment use. The global warming potential (GWP) associated with the seedling and liner stages combined included 0.3123 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) for materials and 0.2228 kg CO2e for equipment use. Total farm-gate variable costs (the seedling, liner, and field production phases combined) amounted to $37.74 per marketable tree, comprised of $9.90 for labor, $21.11 for materials, and $6.73 for equipment use, respectively. However, post-harvest costs (e.g., transportation, transplanting, take-down, and disposal costs) added another $33.78 in labor costs and $27.08 in equipment costs to the farm-gate cost, yielding a total cost from seedling to end of tree life of $98.60. Of this, $43.68 was spent on labor, $21.11 spent on materials, and $33.81 spent on equipment use during the life cycle of each marketable tree. As per an earlier study, the life cycle GWP of the described redbud tree, including greenhouse gas emissions during production, transport, transplanting, take-down, and disposal, would be a negative 63 kg CO2e (). These combined data can be used to communicate to the consuming public the true (positive) value of trees in the landscape.

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Clinton C. Shock, Erik B. G. Feibert, and Lamont D. Saunders

Onion (Allium cepa L.) production in the Treasure Valley of eastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho has been based on furrow irrigation with 318 kg·ha-1 N fertilizer and average yields of 70 Mg·ha-1, but these practices have been implicated in nitrate contamination of groundwater. Drip irrigation, introduced in the early 1990s, has several advantages, including reduced leaching losses. Since onion plant populations and N fertilizer rates can affect economic returns, studies were conducted in 1999, 2000, and 2001 to determine optimum plant populations and N fertilizer rates for subsurface drip-irrigated onion. Long-day onion (`Vision') was subjected to a combination of seven nitrogen fertilization rates (0 to 336 kg·ha-1 in 56-kg increments applied between late May and early July) and four plant populations (185, 250, 300, and 370 thousand plants/ha). Onion was grown on silt loam in two double rows spaced 0.56 m apart on 1.1 m beds with a drip tape buried 13 cm deep in the bed center. Soil water potential was maintained nearly constant at -20 kPa by automated irrigations based on soil water potential measurements at a 0.2-m depth. Onion bulbs were evaluated for yield and grade after 70 days of storage. Onion yield and grade were highly responsive to plant population. Onion marketable yield increased, and bulb diameter decreased with increasing plant population. Within the range of plant populations tested, gross returns were not always responsive to plant population. Returns were increased by the increase in marketable yield obtained with higher plant population, but higher plant population also reduced the production of the largest sized bulbs which had the highest value per weight. Onion yielded 95 Mg·ha-1 with no applied N fertilizer, averaged over plant populations and years. Onion yield and grade were not responsive to N fertilizer rate or interaction of N fertilizer rate with plant population. Preplant soil available N, N mineralization, and N in irrigation water all contributed N to the crop. Onion N uptake did not increase with increasing N fertilizer rate.

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Desire Djidonou, Xin Zhao, Karen E. Koch, and Lincoln Zotarelli

study was to assess the growth, plant N concentration, N accumulation, N uptake, NUE, and root distribution of grafted and nongrafted tomato plants under different N fertilization rates in sandy soils. Materials and Methods Experimental site and design

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Desire Djidonou, Xin Zhao, Eric H. Simonne, Karen E. Koch, and John E. Erickson

years, a split-plot design with four replications was used. The whole-plot treatments, i.e., 12 factorial combinations of two irrigation regimes and six N fertilization rates, were arranged in a randomized complete block design. The subplot treatments

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Kimberly Moore, Scott Greenhut, and Wagner Vendrame

until no substrate remained. Roots were dried according to the method described for shoots and then weighed. Data analysis. The experiment was designed as a randomized three-way factorial with three substrates, four fertilization rates, and three

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James C. Fulton and Mark E. Uchanski

/or fruit mass may be more prone to stip manifestation if grown under heavy fertilization rates as their inherent vascular tissue is not adequate to compensate for increased fruit size and yield. However, the directionality of a relationship between fruit

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Paolo Benincasa, Marcello Guiducci, and Francesco Tei

Meaning of nitrogen use efficiency. Several studies have addressed the optimization of fertilization and the improvement of NUE of crops to achieve high yields with reduced N fertilization rates and limited environmental side effects related to N