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Wendy S. Klooster, Bert M. Cregg, R. Thomas Fernandez, and Pascal Nzokou

). Moreover, consumer preference of container material has been steadily increasing ( Halcomb and Fare, 1995 ). Container production has been increasing relative to B&B and now accounts for nearly 30% of the coniferous evergreen sales in the upper Midwest

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Jeb S. Fields, James S. Owen Jr., and Holly L. Scoggins

container production systems must receive quality fresh water daily or multiple times per day, in the absence of precipitation, to prevent actual or perceived plant water stress. Because of this, growers often apply excess water to container crops to

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Michael A. Arnold and Daniel K. Struve

Seedlings of nine coarse-rooted species–sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima Carruth), white oak (Q. alba L.), cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia Elliott), post oak (Q. stellata Wangenh.), black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), pignut hickory [Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet], pecan [C. illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch], Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume), and common baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) L. Rich]—were grown for one growing season in nontreated containers or in containers treated on their interior surfaces with white interior latex paint containing 100 g Cu(OH)2/liter. Seedlings of each species and container treatment were harvested twice: once after being transplanted from 3.2- to 15.0-liter containers and at the end of the growing season. Cupric hydroxide-treated containers decreased the amount of circled, kinked, and matted roots formed at the container wall-medium interface in all species tested. Plants grown in Cu(OH)2-treated containers also had altered root dry-weight partitioning. The partitioning patterns were species specific and included 6% to 20% increases in the percentage of root dry weight in interior vs. exterior portions of the rootball (white oak, black walnut, Chinese chestnut, and baldcypress), 10% to 21% increases in the percentage of root dry weight in upper vs. lower halves of the rootball (sawtooth oak, cherrybark oak, black walnut, and baldcypress), and an increase in the percentage of primary lateral roots (lateral roots originating from taproots or roots functioning as taproots) on the upper (proximal) half of taproots (cherrybark oak, pecan, and baldcypress). Nutrients in leaves, stems, and roots of sawtooth oak seedlings were analyzed at both harvests. Seedlings grown in Cu(OH)2-treated containers had more Cu in most plant tissues than nontreated seedlings. Also, seedlings grown in Cu(OH)2-treated containers had higher total Ca and Mg concentrations at transplanting and higher total N and Zn concentrations at the end of the growing season than nontreated seedlings.

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W. Garrett Owen

substrates during container production over time is needed, to thereby establish nutrient sufficiency ranges by chronological age. Literature Cited Biernbaum, J. Morrison, M.S. 2000 Forcing perennials: Root zone management, p. 13–16. In: Greenhouse Grower

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Daike Tian, Ken M. Tilt, Jeff L. Sibley, Floyd M. Woods, and Fenny Dane

March and April are the best seasons to begin planting lotus for container production in Auburn area of Alabama. However, an optimal planting timeframe would be case-dependent considering differences of genotype (early or late season cultivars), local

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Amy Fulcher, Forbes Walker, James Altland, Wesley Wright, and Neal Eash

reported in different studies during container production ( Dumroese et al., 2011 ; Graber et al., 2010 ; Headlee et al., 2014 ; Vaughn et al., 2013 ). WUE was greater in the two on-demand irrigation schedules ( P = 0.0442). It increased by 40% in both

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Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, and William C. Fonteno

with growing plants in containers, it is important to understand how root growth influences substrates used in container production. These studies indicate that the rhizometer has the capability to measure physical properties of substrates either with

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Guihong Bi, William B. Evans, James M. Spiers, and Anthony L. Witcher

sources for container production of marigold in greenhouses. Studies using other commercial organic fertilizers have also shown that organic fertilizers could be used to produce crops with similar or better growth, yields, or quality than conventionally

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William Garrett Owen

standards of H. hybrid L. (hibiscus) grown in soilless substrates during container production. Hibiscus served as a model crop because to date, no leaf tissue concentration limits are published for H. hybrid , but only survey measurements taken from

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Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, Catherine M. Grieve, Abdul Razak-Mahar, Milton E. McGiffen, and Donald J. Merhaut

quality responses and nutritional ion imbalances of selected landscape shrub species subjected to irrigation with water of increasing NaCl + CaCl 2 concentrations during container production. Materials and Methods Spring–summer experiment. Plants of