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Gerardo H. Nunez, Hilda Patricia Rodríguez-Armenta, Rebecca L. Darnell, and James W. Olmstead

would be an adaptive advantage for acid-loving plants like Vaccinium species. Hence, the RSA of V. arboreum might be related to its soil adaptation. These RSA traits and the fact that V. arboreum has been previously used in SHB breeding ( Lyrene

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Jude W. Grosser, Hyun Joo An, Milica Calovic, Dong H. Lee, Chunxian Chen, Monica Vasconcellos, and Frederick G. Gmitter Jr

rarely have direct use as improved cultivars ( Guo et al., 2004b ); and the most important application of somatic hybridization is the building of novel germplasm as a source of elite breeding parents for various types of conventional crosses, including

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Aurora Díaz, Antonio Martín, Pilar Rallo, and Raúl De la Rosa

Growers have obtained most of the current olive cultivars by empiric selection over centuries ( León et al., 2005 ). Several breeding programs are now devoted to releasing new cultivars better adapted to the actual trends in olive growing in

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Narinder P.S. Dhillon, Supannika Sanguansil, Supornpun Srimat, Roland Schafleitner, B. Manjunath, Parag Agarwal, Qu Xiang, Mohammed Abu Taher Masud, Thaingi Myint, Ngo Thi Hanh, Tran Kim Cuong, Conrado H. Balatero, Venus Salutan-Bautista, Michel Pitrat, Aleš Lebeda, and James D. McCreight

; Kousik et al., 2011 ; Mercier et al., 2014 ; Zhang et al., 2011 ). Furthermore, we evaluated horticultural fruit characters of the CPM-resistant bitter gourd breeding lines in the field test at Kamphaeng Saen, Thailand in 2014, and assessed the yield

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Peter Cousins

Breeding rootstocks for fruit crops is slower than scion breeding in the same species. This is due to the testing requirements of rootstocks that reduce the opportunity for comprehensive first tests on individual plants and to expanding selection criteria for rootstocks. Rootstock breeding is a relatively new discipline of fruit crop improvement and novel functions of rootstocks still are being understood and developed; this increases the requirements of rootstocks without diminishing the testing requirements.

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Sogo Nishio, Masahiko Yamada, Norio Takada, Hidenori Kato, Noriyuki Onoue, Yutaka Sawamura, and Toshihiro Saito

persimmon ( FAOSTAT, 2013 ). An organized chestnut breeding program started in 1947 at the National Institute of Fruit Tree Science in Japan and continues at the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO) Institute of Fruit Tree Science

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Charles J. Wasonga, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales, Timothy G. Porch, and Phillip D. Griffiths

; Rainey and Griffiths, 2005 ). Wasonga et al. (2010) developed and tested in East Africa some heat-tolerant snap bean breeding lines that demonstrated potential for improving production in the region as well as other tropical and subtropical environments

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Yonghong Guo, Matthew Kramer, and Margaret Pooler

. Disease-resistant taxa have been found for use in sour and sweet cherry breeding programs ( Stegmeir et al., 2014 ; Wharton et al., 2003 ), and detached leaf assays have been developed ( Wharton et al., 2003 ). A field screening of six popular ornamental

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Erik J. Sacks and David M. Francis

1 Current address: International Rice Research Institute, Plant Breeding Genetics & Biochemistry Division, P.O. Box 3127, Makati Central Post Office (MCPO), 1271 Makati City, Philippines. We thank Ken Scaife and Troy Aldrich for technical assistance

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Milad El Riachy, Luis Rallo, Raúl de la Rosa, and Lorenzo León

can reach up to 13 years under natural growing conditions ( Bellini, 1993 ). This long period is the main reason for the scarcity of new olive varieties generated by olive breeding programs in comparison with other fruit species ( Barranco and Rallo