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Susan L.F. Meyer, Inga A. Zasada, Shannon M. Rupprecht, Mark J. VanGessel, Cerruti R.R. Hooks, Matthew J. Morra, and Kathryne L. Everts

, including timing and rates of application ( Meyer et al., 2011 ; Rothlisberger et al., 2012 ; Snyder et al., 2009 ). Because of potential phytotoxicity, application of mustard seed meals as biofumigants must be timed to avoid phytotoxicity to crop plants

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Victoria J. Ackroyd and Mathieu Ngouajio

control soilborne pathogens, while contributing other benefits such as decreased erosion and weed suppression. Research suggests that brassica cover crops may be phytotoxic to cash crop seeds. Haramoto and Gallandt (2005) determined that brassica cover

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David A. Bender, J. Wayne Keeling, and Roland E. Roberts

Large weeds, particularly amaranths, are a serious impediment to mechanical harvesting of jalapeno peppers. Several herbicides were applied in 1998 and 1999 postemergence topical (PT) to commercial fields when peppers had four to six leaves, or postdirected (PD) with a shielded sprayer ≈1 month later, and evaluated for crop injury, weed control, and effects on yield. Treatments were applied to four-row plots 9 m long with a CO<subscript>2 backpack sprayer. PT treatments included pyrithiobac sodium at 0.036, 0.053, or 0.071 kg·ha–1 a.i. with nonionic surfactant or crop oil concentrate, metolachlor at 1.68 kg·ha–1 a.i., and oxyfluorfen at 0.14 or 0.28 kg·ha–1 a.i.. PD treatments consisted of the same rates of pyrithiobac sodium with nonionic surfactant only, and the same rates of oxyfluorfen. Pyrithiobac sodium PT caused significant chlorosis (reduction in SPAD chlorophyll) in new foliage and reduction in plant height after 1 week, but plants recovered with no effect on final plant height, chlorophyll, or yield. No significant difference was observed between the two adjuvants. Metolachlor had no measurable effect on pepper growth or yield. Oxyfluorfen PT killed young apical tissue and caused chlorosis of immature leaves. Plants recovered, but plant height was reduced by 14% to 28% and yield by 11% to 43%. PD treatments had no effect on pepper growth or yield. All herbicides provided adequate weed control under light pressure. Pyrithiobac sodium appears to have potential as a postemergence herbicide for control of amaranth in jalapeno peppers.

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John F. Karlik and Martha P. Gonzalez

Roses are likely the most popular garden plant in the United States, and cultivars are also used as landscape plant materials. Three herbicide trials with two main objectives were conducted with rose plants. The first objective was to evaluate injury to the roses when over-sprayed at various stages of growth. The second objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the herbicides. All herbicides were used at label rates and applied over the top of rose plants. In the first trial, the pre-emergent herbicides pendimethalin, oryzalin, trifluralin, metolachlor, napropamide, and oxyfluorfen were applied to plots containing dormant roses with ≈1-cm shoots just pushing. Evaluations of shoot length taken over the next 6 weeks showed no differences in growth of rose plants, but weed populations were reduced. In the second trial, five post-emergent herbicides were applied to plots containing dormant roses. Herbicides evaluated included the grass herbicides fluazifop-p-butyl, sethoxydim, and clethodim. The nonselective herbicide glyphosate was included in the trial, as was a combination herbicide containing 2,4-D, mecoprop, and dicamba. There was no visible injury to rose plants until 6 weeks after treatment. At that time, roses treated with glyphosate had shorter shoots. Recovery from glyphosate appeared more rapidly than recovery from the combination herbicide. Weed control varied with each herbicide. The third trial evaluated the same five herbicides for control of bermudagrass in late spring. Injury to roses was noted immediately from the combination herbicide and glyphosate. All the grass herbicides and glyphosate were effective in controlling bermudagrass.

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J.G. Norcini and J.H. Aldrich

Eight species of low-growing woody and herbaceous landscape plants were evaluated for tolerance to 1.1 or 2.2 kg a.i. bentazon/ha (plus a crop oil) applied over the top twice 7 days apart. Raphiolepis indica L. Lindl. `Alba' was the only species tolerant to bentazon in either of two experiments. Bentazon injury to Liriope muscari (Decne.) L.H. Bailey `Evergreen Giant' was minor (slight chlorosis) and would probably be tolerable under most landscape situations. Injury (primarily chlorosis/necrosis) to Carissa macrocarpa `Emerald Blanket', Juniperus horizontalis Moench `Bar Harbor', Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Ait. `Compacta Green', Trachelospermum asiaticum (Sie-bold & Zucc.) Nakai `Aslo', Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl., and Hemerocallis × `Aztec Gold' was significant and therefore unacceptable. Chemical name used: 3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-(4)-3H-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon).

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Sang Ryul Shim and B.J. Johnson

Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) putting greens are commonly infested with crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) and goosegrass [Eleusine india (L.) Gaertn.]; however, many herbicides have the potential to severely injure this turfgrass species. A field investigation was conducted over 2 years to determine the tolerance of creeping bentgrass to various herbicides. Trifluralin plus benefin (2.2 to 6.7 kg·ha-1), dithiopyr (0.37 to 1.1 kg·ha-1), and prodiamine (0.5 to 1.7 kg·ha-1) did not injure creeping bentgrass. Pendimethalin caused only slight injury when applied at 3.4 kg·ha-1, but injury increased in 1 of 2 years when applied at ≥6.7 kg·ha-1. Creeping bentgrass was severely injured when treated with benefin plus oryzalin (≥4.5 kg·ha-1), fenoxaprop (0.07 kg·ha-1), and oxadiazon (3.4 kg·ha-1) granular and WP formulations and, therefore, should not be applied to the turf. Chemical names used: N -butyl-N -ethyl-2, 6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine (benefin); S,S -dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl-3, 5-pyridinedicarbothioate (dithiopyr); (±) 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fenoxaprop); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(l-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N -(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); 2,4-dinitro N,N -dipropyl-6-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-benzenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N-N -dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).

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Charles L. Webber III, Merritt J. Taylor, and James W. Shrefler

the second application date, 21 July 2010 and 2011. Because of the delayed emergence of yellow nutsedge, only one application of PA was received by the weed. Weed-control and crop injury (phytotoxicity) ratings were collected at 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 16, 22

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B.R. Bondada, R Romero-Aranda, J. Syvertsen, and L. Albrigo

Foliar applications of urea-nitrogen are widely used to alleviate N deficiencies in citrus; however, improper applications can cause serious foliar burn and loss of active green leaf area. Light (LM), transmission (TEM), and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy were used to characterize anatomical and ultrastructural details of foliar burn in citrus. LM examination of the burned leaf area showed collapsed adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells and plasmolysis of mesophyll cells that created large intercellular spaces. SEM showed wrinkling of both the adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells. TEM revealed cytoplasmic vacuolation, disruption of cellular membrane, degradation of grana, and appearance of large plastoglobuli, implying loss of physiological activity. In contrast, control leaves had turgid adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells and compact mesophyll cells with few intercellular air spaces.

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Joseph C. Neal, Marvin P. Pritts, and Andrew F. Senesac

Five greenhouse and two Geld experiments were conducted to evaluate tissue culture-propagated (TC) raspberry (Rubus idaeus cv. Heritage) sensitivity to preemergent herbicides. Plant performance was measured by plant vigor, above-ground fresh weight, root development, and primocane number. Simazine and oryzalin caused significant injury to newly planted TC raspberry plants in greenhouse and field experiments. The severity of injury was generally linear with respect to herbicide rate, but no appreciable differences in injury were observed between the granular and spray applications. Napropamide wettable powder caused some foliar injury, but plants recovered within one growing season and growth was equal or superior to the hand-weeded controls. The granular formulation of napropamide produced similar results, but did not cause the initial foliar burn. Pre-plant dipping of roots into a slurry of activated carbon did not prevent simazine or oryzalin injury, but injury was reduced when herbicide applications were delayed. Simazine applied 4 weeks after planting was not Injurious, and oqzalin applied 2 or 4 weeks after planting caused some foliar injury, hut no reduction in plant fresh weight. Delayed treatments of napropamide increased foliar injury. Herbicide tolerance of tissue-cultured plantlets appeared to be less than that of conventionally propagated plants. Chemical names used: N,N-diethyl-2-(1-napthalenyloxy)propanamide (napropamide), 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin), 6-chloro-N,N'diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (simazine).

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Jacqueline K. Burns, Luis V. Pozo, Rongcai Yuan, and Brandon Hockema

Guanfacine and clonidine were combined with ethephon or metsulfuron-methyl in the spray tank and applied as foliar sprays to Citrus sinensis L. Osb. `Valencia', Citrus madurensis Loureiro (calamondin), and Prunus persica `Elberta' to determine their effects on leaf loss, fruit detachment force (FDF), immature fruit loss, and twig dieback. In `Valencia' orange, `Elberta' peach and calamondin, guanfacine and clonidine effectively reduced ethephon-induced defoliation in all three tree species, whereas only guanfacine was effective with metsulfuron-methyl applications in `Valencia'. The ability of ethephon to reduce FDF in `Valencia' was only minimally impaired by guanfacine but not impaired by clonidine. Both guanfacine and clonidine diminished the capacity of metsulfuron-methyl to reduce FDF. Guanfacine reduced immature fruit loss of `Valencia' caused by metsulfuron-methyl and reduced twig-dieback. Leaf loss was reduced whether guanfacine or clonidine were applied with ethephon, or 24 hours or 17 days before ethephon application. Guanfacine and clonidine reduced leaf loss induced by continuous exposure of potted calamondin trees to ethylene, and leaf loss was similar with guanfacine and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments. In separate experiments, guanfacine and clonidine were unable to block ethylene perception in Arabidopsis seedlings and petunia flowers but promoted rooting in coleus and tomato vegetative cuttings, suggesting that these compounds have auxin-like activity. The results demonstrate the potential to enhance selectivity of abscission agents with guanfacine and clonidine. Chemical names used: 2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino]-2-imidazoline, clonidine; 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-pyrazole, CMN-P; [(2,6-dichlorophenyl)acetyl]guanidine, guanfacine; [(2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid, ethephon; indole-3-butyric acid, IBA; 1-methylcyclopropene, 1-MCP.