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Xunzhong Zhang, Erik H. Ervin, Yiming Liu, Guofu Hu, Chao Shang, Takeshi Fukao, and Jasper Alpuerto

). All these isoforms protects cellular molecules from damage caused by ROS. Ascorbate peroxidase detoxifies H 2 O 2 using ascorbate as a substrate and its isoforms are active in chloroplasts, cytosol, peroxisomes, and mitochondria ( Mittler et al., 2004

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Jibiao Fan, Jing Ren, Weixi Zhu, Erick Amombo, Jinmin Fu, and Liang Chen

dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) ( Asada, 2006 ; Gupta et al., 1993 ; Kono and Fridovich, 1982 ). SOD including copper/zinc (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese (MnSOD), and iron (FeSOD) catalyzes the superoxide free radical ion to H 2 O 2 according

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Gang Lu, Wenlei Jian, Jiajing Zhang, Yijing Zhou, and Jiashu Cao

activation of defense-related enzymes such as peroxidase (POD), polyphenoloxidases (PPO), chitinases, and β -1, 3-glucanase ( Chérif et al., 1994 ; Dann and Muir, 2002 ; Rodrigues et al., 2005 ). Further studies showed that the epidermal cells of Si

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Yu Liu, Miao He, Fengli Dong, Yingjie Cai, Wenjie Gao, Yunwei Zhou, He Huang, and Silan Dai

, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and other physiological indexes were detected in plants after salt stress. These physiological indexes were determined following the methods of Zhang et al. (2012

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Concetta Licciardello, Biagio Torrisi, Maria Allegra, Fabiola Sciacca, Giancarlo Roccuzzo, Francesco Intrigliolo, Giuseppe Reforgiato Recupero, Paola Tononi, Massimo Delledonne, and Vera Muccilli

estimated spectrophotometrically at 663 and 645 nm, respectively. Chlorophyll levels were calculated using the equations described by Arnon (1949) , and the concentration was expressed relative to the fresh leaf weight ( Nxawe et al., 2011 ). Peroxidase

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Chang-Xia Du, Huai-Fu Fan, Shi-Rong Guo, and Takafumi Tezuka

metalloprotein that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide radicals to H 2 O 2 and O 2 ( Bowler et al., 1992 ). The H 2 O 2 is then scavenged by catalase (CAT) and a variety of peroxidases (POD) and converted into H 2 O and O 2 . The biochemical defense

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Pai-Tsang Chang, Marc W. van Iersel, William M. Randle, and Carl E. Sams

, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which may have human health benefits ( Rotruck et al., 1973 ). The Se-dependent GPx was first found in green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ( Fu et al., 2002 ), but its presence has not been proved in higher plants

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Rashad M. Balal, Muhammad M. Khan, Muhammad A. Shahid, Neil S. Mattson, Tahira Abbas, Muhammad Ashfaq, Franscisco Garcia-Sanchez, Usman Ghazanfer, Vicente Gimeno, and Zafar Iqbal

., 2005 ), including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) ( Noreen and Ashraf, 2009 ). The growth and productivity of citrus plants are inhibited by saline as a result of the ion toxicity of Na + and Cl – as well as the ion

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Kevin Laskowski, Vijaya Shukla, and Emily B. Merewitz

. In various perennial ryegrass accessions differing in drought susceptibility, Liu and Jiang (2010) found by differential genetic analysis that the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and other antioxidants play a major role in conferring

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Longxing Hu, Tao Hu, Xunzhong Zhang, Huancheng Pang, and Jinmin Fu

nonenzymatic detoxification mechanisms). Antioxidant enzymes consisted of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase, etc. ( Apel and Hirt, 2004 ). SOD catalyzes the dismutation of O 2 − to molecular O 2 and H 2 O 2 ( Meloni et al