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Jason E. Stout, Joan R. Davenport, and R. Troy Peters

In Washington State, ‘Concord’ grape ( V. labruscana ) production is concentrated in the Yakima Valley in Central Washington and yield is heavily dependent on supplemental irrigation because of the arid steppe climate ( Fischer and Turner, 1978

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Brian Makeredza, Michael Schmeisser, Elmi Lötze, and Willem J. Steyn

factors in sunburn development, indirect factors such as relative humidity, air movement, and various cultural practices such as tree size, canopy structure, pruning, and irrigation may affect the incidence and severity of sunburn ( Racskó and Schrader

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Laurence Gendron, Guillaume Létourneau, Julien Cormier, Claire Depardieu, Carole Boily, Raymond Levallois, and Jean Caron

challenges for Quebec’s strawberry producers is to achieve more sustainable water use through the large-scale adoption of improved irrigation management practices. Although Quebec has a relatively humid climate and a negative “potential evapotranspiration

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David H. Suchoff, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Frank J. Louws, and Christopher C. Gunter

yields while reducing overall water inputs ( Pennisi, 2008 ). Numerous cultural practices and breeding efforts have been aimed at improving water use efficiency. Practices that direct irrigation water to the plant roots, such as subsurface drip, or that

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Nathaniel Ferraro, Darrell Bosch, James Pease, and James S. Owen Jr.

and recycle water offer potential solutions to this problem by reducing consumption of water and extending its availability ( Parsons et al., 2010 ). In the nursery crops industry, ≈5% of outdoor, uncovered operations nationwide recycle irrigation

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Terri Starman

, and recreational users has become intense. Use of municipal reclaimed water (also called recycled water in some states) to irrigate landscapes can conserve a substantial amount of potable water because ≈50% of the total municipal water consumption from

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David R. Bryla, Jim L. Gartung, and Bernadine C. Strik

Highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a shallow-rooted crop that is very susceptible to water stress ( Bryla and Strik, 2007 ; Mingeau et al., 2001 ). The plants usually require irrigation for commercial production, even in wet climates

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Cynthia McKenney

landscape irrigation increases with urban population expansion ( Kjelgren et al., 2000 ; Qian et al., 2005 ). Using alternative water sources such as municipal reclaimed water to irrigate urban landscapes can significantly conserve potable water. Municipal

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Dariusz Swietlik

107 WORKSHOP 15 Measuring Soil and Plant Water Status to Indicate Irrigation Needs in Horticultural Crops

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Kelly T. Morgan, T. Adair Wheaton, Larry R. Parsons, and William S. Castle

irrigation use has increased by 15.5 and 20.7 times, respectively, during the same period ( Marella and Berndt, 2005 ). Likewise, the amount of wastewater generated by cities in Florida has increased more than fivefold since 1950. Environmental concerns about