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F. Roger Harker, Christopher B. Watkins, Paul L. Brookfield, Mellisa J. Miller, Suzanne Reid, Phillippa J. Jackson, Roderick L. Bieleski, and Tim Bartley

Preharvest development and postharvest disappearance of watercore in `Fuji' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) from a northern (Hawke's Bay, latitude 39° south) and southern (Otago, latitude 45° south) region of New Zealand were compared. A new method for quantifying watercore was developed. A photocopy was taken of the symptoms after each fruit was cut in half through the equator, and then the area of affected flesh (photocopies black) was measured using morphometric methods and compared to the area of unaffected flesh (photocopies white). Watercore was more severe and developed earlier in the season in Otago than in Hawke's Bay. In Otago, a block-type watercore predominated, disorder symptoms initially appearing in the tissues located at the junction of two carpels, while in Hawke's Bay a radial-type of watercore predominated, initially appearing in the tissues surrounding the coreline vascular bundles. Regression analysis identified that orchard and harvest date accounted for most of the differences in watercore symptoms and that the initial appearance of low levels of watercore was the best predictor that fruit would start to develop commercially significant levels of watercore. Incorporation of background color, internal ethylene concentration, starch pattern index, and firmness only slightly improved the regression coefficient. Watercore disappeared from the flesh during storage of fruit from both regions. Fruit from early harvests had the least severe symptoms, and the highest rates of watercore disappearance during storage. In fruit with more severe symptoms at harvest, its disappearance during storage was associated with an increase in fruit volume and air space, which occurred despite continuing mass loss. We suggest that during storage, the extracellular fluid associated with watercore symptoms is absorbed into the cells, and thus drives the increase in fruit volume.

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Elena de Castro, William V. Biasi, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham

; however, our results show that CO 2 concentrations more than 1 KPa can cause CO 2 -related disorders such as internal browning in California-grown Pink Lady. High concentrations of CO 2 seem to stress the fruit, leading to higher ethylene production and

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Muharrem Ergun, Steven A. Sargent, and Donald J. Huber

Grape tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Santa') harvested at light-red (>90% color) and full-red stages were treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 24 hours at 20 °C and stored at 20 °C. After 1 day of storage, fruit harvested at light-red stage treated with 1-MCP had a 56% lower respiration rate than untreated fruit. By day 7, respiration rates of the two treatments had converged at about 2 mL·kg–1·h–1. Ethylene production of light-red stage tomatoes treated with 1-MPC was 24% lower than untreated during storage, with rates converging by day 11. For fruit harvested full-red, 1-MCP had similar effects on respiration and ethylene production, although convergence occurred earlier, by day 5. Subsequent tests were conducted only with fruit harvested at full-red stage, since fruit harvested at the light-red stage had lower soluble solids content (4.3%) than fruit harvested at the full-red stage (5.5%). Several combinations of 1-MCP concentrations and exposure times were applied at 20 °C: 1 μL·L–1 for 24 h, 5 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h, 25 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h, and 50 μL·L–1 for 6 or 12 h; following the respective pretreatment fruits were stored at 20 °C. 1-MCP pretreatment extended marketable life by 1 d, irrespective of pretreatment regime, where untreated and pretreated fruit remained marketable (<15% of fruit soft, decayed and/or shriveled) for 6 and 7 d, respectively. However, 1-MCP did not affect whole fruit firmness, epidermal color, internal color, soluble solids content (6.5%), total titratable acidity (0.64%), or pH (4.3). In a third test simulating commercial handling procedures, full-red harvested tomatoes were treated with 1 μL·L–1 1-MCP for 24 h at either 13 or 20 °C, stored for 4 d at 13 °C, and then transferred to 20 °C. Under these conditions, marketable life for untreated and 1-MCP-treated tomatoes was 7 and 8 d, respectively.

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MiAe Cho, Brandon M. Hurr, Jiwon Jeong, Chaill Lim, and Donald J. Huber

of ethylene responses in a range of nonclimacteric fruit and vegetables, the threshold concentrations for ethylene-induced responses were below 5 nL·L −1 ( Wills et al., 1999 ). Biological activity at these levels would suggest that the low levels of

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Andrew R. East, David J. Tanner, Jenny J. Jobling, Kate M. Maguire, and A. John Mawson

substantially influenced by previous temperature exposure ( Fig. 2A–B ). In previous studies, delays before cooling ‘Royal Gala’ and ‘Cox's Orange Pippin’ apples have led to increased internal ethylene concentrations ( Johnston et al., 2005 ). In this study, a

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Karthik-Joseph John-Karuppiah and Jacqueline K. Burns

. Shiomi, S. Nakano, R. Kubo, Y. Inaba, A. 1998 Differential expression and internal feedback regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and ethylene receptor genes

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Luiz C. Argenta, Xuetong Fan, and James P. Mattheis

at 20 °C, or after 3 or 6 months of cold storage plus 1 or 7 d at 20 °C. Fruit firmness, starch index (1 = 100% starch coverage; 6 = 0% starch), titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids content, internal ethylene concentration (IEC), respiration, and

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Jingyi Lv, Yonghong Ge, Canying Li, Mengyuan Zhang, and Jianrong Li

), pears [ Pyrus communis ( Kondo et al., 2007 )], and peaches [ Prunus persica ( Ruiz et al., 2013 )], exogenous JA application modulated ethylene biosynthesis and expression of its biosynthesis genes in a developmental- and concentration

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Xingbin Xie, Congbing Fang, and Yan Wang

treatment, were removed from storage for physiological, biochemical, and quality evaluations. Internal ethylene concentration, EPR, and RR. Internal ethylene concentration (IEC) was measured on fruit immediately on removal from cold storage. Gas was sampled

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Xiuxiu Sun, Elizabeth Baldwin, Mark Ritenour, Robert Hagenmaier, and Jinhe Bai

range, physiologically, throughout the experiment, thus no adverse effects were expected ( Bai and Plotto, 2011 ; Yan et al., 2016 ). Internal ethylene concentrations were unaffected by different colorant wax mixture applications, however, low