lycopersicum L. ( Autio and Bramlage, 1986 )], mandarin [ Citrus reticulata Blanco ( Lafuente et al., 1997 )], and pepper ( Lim et al., 2007 ; Lin et al., 1993 ). Ethylene production, respiration, and electrolyte leakage (EL) usually precede or occur
Chae Shin Lim, Seong Mo Kang, Jeoung Lai Cho, and Kenneth C. Gross
Alicain S. Carlson and John M. Dole
, including ethylene, storage temperatures, sucrose pulses, and commercial preservatives. Ethylene exposure can have deleterious effects on cut flowers. Selected species of beardtongue are sensitive to ethylene, including foxglove beardtongue ( P. digitalis
Yan Xu and Bingru Huang
both genetically and environmentally regulated senescence are associated with hormonal changes with either upregulating or downregulating effects ( Nooden and Leopoid, 1988 ). Ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), and cytokinins are three major phytohormones
Masayasu Nagata, Natsu Tanikawa, and Takashi Onozaki
The plant hormone ethylene plays an important role in the senescence process of carnation flowers. Recently, various genes that concern ethylene responses have been cloned from many sources of plants. Our main aim is to compare the sequences of ethylene receptor genes among carnations with different ethylene sensitivities. Four carnations, `White Sim' (ethylene sensitive control), `Chinera' (lower ethylene sensitivity), 64-13 and 64-54 were used. The carnations temporarily named as 64-13 and 64-54 are our breeding lines with less ethylene sensitivity, thus better flower retention. Total RNA was extracted using SDS-phenol method. Putative ethylene receptor genes were cloned by RT-PCR using degenerate primers that correspond to the highly conserved regions of ETR1 and ERS genes. Two kinds of DNA fragments, ≈1 kb in the length encoding putative ethylene receptor genes were cloned from all samples. An ERS-type gene was cloned that is identical to the gene, known as DC-ERS2 (Accession No. AF034770). Another was ETR1-type gene, which has not been reported in carnations yet. That was 91% identical to the ETR1 gene from melon or apple at the translated amino acid level. The deduced amino acid sequences of ERS-type genes among four samples were almost the same. However there were five mutations in `Chinera', one mutation in 64-13 and two mutations in 64-54, compared to `White Sim' at the translated amino acid level. As they located rather conserved regions of the gene, it is expected to affect the less ethylene sensitivity of the carnations.
Theodore W. Tibbitts and Barbara Peterson
Vapors of ethylene glycol, 1,2 ethanediol, were found to cause serious injury to cucumbers in controlled-environment rooms in which this chemical was utilized for heat transfer. A chlorotic injury, which later became necrotic, occurred at the leaf apices and progressed along the margins to cause stunting and cupping of the leaves. High concentrations caused cessation of shoot growth and produced florets with short petals and stunted sepals. The source of the contaminating vapors appeared to be residual ethylene glycol from leaks over the years that had impregnated the floors or walls of the rooms. Activated charcoal or potassium permanganate filters installed in the circulating air stream of the rooms effectively prevented injury.
Siriphun Sriyook, Somboon Siriatiwat, and Jingtair Siriphanich
Immature and mature durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) fruit dehiscence was studied. Fruit were stored at 27C and 65% or 95% relative humidity, with or without 24-hour exposure to 100 ppm ethylene. Low relative humidity and ethylene increased fruit dehiscence. Spraying fruit with 100 ppm GA3 delayed dehiscence but allowed pulp ripening to continue. The plant-growth regulators IBA; 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; BAP; daminozide; and mepiquat chloride had no consistent effects on fruit dehiscence. Various coating materials delayed dehiscence and ripening; a sucrose fatty acid ester at 1% concentration gave the best result. All coating materials reduced weight loss 7% to 14% below that of the control fruit. Fruit coated with the sucrose fatty acid ester and 100% apple wax had higher internal CO2 levels than fruit coated with any other coating. Ethylene is more important in durian fruit dehiscence than weight loss. Chemical names used: 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T); 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP); succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide (daminozide); 1,1-dimethyl-piperidinium chloride (mepiquat chloride); gibberellic acid (GA3).
Geeta K. Nanaiah and Jeffrey A. Anderson
Abbreviations: EER, ethane: ethylene ratio; EL, electrolyte leakage. 1 Graduate Assistant. 2 Associate Professor. To whom reprint requests should be addressed. Journal article no. 6121 of the Agr. Expt. Sta., Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater
Margrethe Serek and Michael S. Reid
Spraying flowering plants of Schlumbergera truncata (Haw.) `White Christmas' with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, did not prevent the rapid loss of flower buds caused by exposure to 1 μl of ethylene/liter. Treatment with the silver thiosulfate anionic complex (STS) strongly inhibited such effects. The rate of bud drop in ethylene-free air (interior environment room) was somewhat reduced by AVG treatment, although total display life of treated plants was not significantly different from that of the controls. STS treatment reduced the rate of bud drop, and increased display life by 20 %.
Rongcai Yuan and Jianguo Li
, color, and cro p value by as much as 20% while maintaining fruit quality ( Byers and Eno, 2002 ). Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis are two compounds that
Hong Zhu, Rongcai Yuan, Duane W. Greene, and Eric P. Beers
Ethylene is involved in young apple fruit abscission ( Curry, 1991 ; Dal Cin et al., 2005 ; McArtney, 2002 ; Zhu et al., 2008 ). Application of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, effectively promoted the abscission of young fruit in