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Guo-Qing Song, Kenneth C. Sink, Peter W. Callow, Rebecca Baughan, and James F. Hancock

isolated, genetic engineering and transformation of blueberry will be a powerful approach to complement traditional breeding by rapidly introducing individual traits without changing the inherent desirable characteristics of existing cultivars ( Ratnaparkhe

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Hirotoshi Tsuda, Hisato Kunitake, Yo Aoki, Akiko Oyama, Takuya Tetsumura, Haruki Komatsu, and Katsunori Yoshioka

their small seedling size and relatively slow growth rate. Finn et al. (1991) reported that in vitro screening in concert with a traditional breeding program could be effective for improving blueberry tolerance to higher pH. The objectives of the

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Ebrahiem M. Babiker, Stephen J. Stringer, Hamidou F. Sakhanokho, Barbara J. Smith, and James J. Polashock

). Accelerating the evaluation process and increasing the accuracy of selection are necessary for introgression of disease resistance genes into widely adapted blueberry cultivars. Breeding for disease resistance relies on finding sources of resistance within

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Dario J. Chavez and Paul M. Lyrene

Hancock, 2000 ; Krebs and Hancock, 1991 ). Diploid V. darrowii has been extensively used in breeding blueberries, but most crosses have involved only one V. darrowii clone, Fla. 4B. Vaccinium darrowii in Florida is quite variable. Lyrene (1986

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John R. Clark

small and stone fruit breeding program, which focuses on cultivar development of blackberry, grape, muscadine grape, blueberry, and peach/nectarine. Cultivars released or co-released total 36, including 27 that are patented. Clark's publications (senior

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John C. Beaulieu, Rebecca E. Stein-Chisholm, and Deborah L. Boykin

molecular basis for wine grape quality: A volatile subject Science 311 804 805 Lyrene, P.M. 1981 Recurrent selection in breeding rabbiteye blueberries ( Vaccimium ashei Reade) Euphytica 30 505 511 Lyrene, P.M. 1983 Inbreeding depression in rabbiteye

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Samir C. Debnath

Blueberries, cranberries, and lingonberries 1 107 Janick J. Moore J.N. Fruit breeding, volume 2, vine and small fruit crops John Wiley & Sons, Inc New York, NY George, E.F. Sherrington, P.D. 1984

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Lisa J. Rowland, Elizabeth L. Ogden, Mark K. Ehlenfeldt, and Bryan Vinyard

Deacclimation response is an important part of reproductive success in woody perennials because late winter or early spring thaws followed by hard freezes can cause severe injury to dehardened flower buds. There is a need to develop more spring-frost tolerant cultivars for the blueberry (Vaccinium L.) industry. The identification of later or slower deacclimating genotypes could be useful in breeding for more spring-frost tolerant cultivars. This study was undertaken to investigate cold hardiness and deacclimation kinetics under field conditions for 12 Vaccinium (section Cyanococcus A. Gray) genotypes (the cultivars Bluecrop, Duke, Legacy, Little Giant, Magnolia, Northcountry, Northsky, Ozarkblue, Pearl River, Tifblue, and Weymouth; and a population of V. constablaei Gray) with different germplasm compositions and expected mid-winter bud hardiness levels. Examination of bud cold hardiness (BCH) vs. weeks of deacclimation over a 7-week period in 2 consecutive years (2002 and 2003) revealed clear genotypic differences in cold hardiness and timing and rate of deacclimation. Among cultivars, `Legacy' was the least cold hardy at initial evaluation, even less so than `Tifblue'. Regarding deacclimation kinetics, the weekly intervals with the largest losses (i.e., high rates of deacclimation) also varied among genotypes. For `Duke', the largest losses in BCH were detected at weeks 2 and 3, making it the earliest deacclimator. For `Bluecrop', `Ozarkblue', `Weymouth', `Tifblue', and `Legacy', the greatest losses in BCH were observed at weeks 3 and 4. For `Little Giant', `Magnolia', `Northcountry', `Northsky', and `Pearl River', losses in BCH were greatest at weeks 4 and 5, while for V. constablaei, losses were greatest at weeks 6 and 7, making it the latest deacclimator. Deacclimation kinetics were not correlated with mid-winter hardiness or chilling requirements in any fixed pattern. On the other hand, a strong positive correlation was found between BCH and stage of bud opening (r = 0.84). A comparison of timing of deacclimation with germplasm composition indicated that V. constablaei was particularly late to deacclimate. `Little Giant', a 50:50 hybrid of V. constablaei and V. ashei Reade, was nearly as late to deacclimate as the 100% V. constablaei selections. Thus, V. constablaei may be useful in breeding programs to contribute genes for late deacclimation, which should translate into greater spring frost tolerance, in addition to genes for mid-winter hardiness.

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Shirley Miller, Peter Alspach, Jessica Scalzo, and John Meekings

, cranberries and lingonberries 1 107 Janick J. Moore J.N. Fruit breeding, Volume 2, Vine and small fruits John Wiley & Sons New York, NY Gupton, C.L. 1997 Evidence of xenia in blueberry Acta Hort. 446 119 123 Hanson, E.J. Hancock, J.F. 1990 Highbush blueberry

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John R. Yeo, Jerry E. Weiland, Dan M. Sullivan, and David R. Bryla

weeks after transplanting. Evaluation of new cultivars and advanced breeding selections (Expt. 2). Seven newly released cultivars and three advanced selections of highbush blueberry from Fall Creek Farm & Nursery were also evaluated for resistance to