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Fan Cao, Yunchu Wei, Xinwang Wang, Yongrong Li, and Fangren Peng

quality, precociousness, early harvest, a high yield, a low degree of alternate bearing, late budbreak, scab resistance, and aphid tolerance for the mature pecan tree. Thus, understanding the impacts of various rootstocks on scion growth and nut production

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Xiaoling He, Susan C. Miyasaka, Yi Zou, Maureen M.M. Fitch, and Yun J. Zhu

and vitamin C ( Parkinson, 1984 ). Yields of taro have been declining in many of the taro-growing countries as a result of diseases caused by a host of pathogens, which include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas, and nematodes ( Brooks

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Lyn A. Gettys

“released” from the pressure imposed by these organisms and can experience unchecked growth in the invaded range ( Keane and Crawley, 2002 ). This hypothesis forms the basis of classical biological control, which uses the introduction of co-evolved host

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Xiaotao Ding, Yuping Jiang, Dafeng Hui, Lizhong He, Danfeng Huang, Jizhu Yu, and Qiang Zhou

. Cucumber also shows a cyclic growth pattern in which periods of high fruit setting and slow fruit growth alternate with periods of low fruit setting and rapid fruit growth ( Marcelis, 1992 ). So far, most studies of cucumber in the greenhouse have been done

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Thierry E. Besançon

alternating temperature regime, whereas the maximum germination was only 12% for both species with a 15/5 °C regime. Nin et al. (2017 ) obtained 82% and 83% germination of European blueberry seeds at constant temperatures of 22.5 and 25 °C, but only 10% at 15

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James D. McCreight, Jack E. Staub, Todd C. Wehner, and Narinder P.S. Dhillon

, herbicides to remove alternate hosts, or genetic resistance ( Provvidenti, 1993 ). Accessions with highest resistance to PRSV were PI 244017, PI 244019, PI 482342, PI 482318, and PI 485583 ( Guner et al., 2002 ; Strange et al., 2002 ). All of the resistant

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Nathan O. Nelson and Rhonda R. Janke

mycorrhizal fungi may help explain some of these relationships. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization. Enhanced P uptake is generally understood to be one of the most important benefits of AMF colonization. In return, the host plant provides carbohydrates

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Hira Singh, Pradeep Kumar, Sushila Chaudhari, and Menahem Edelstein

., 2012 ). Grafting may cause a shift in the host specificity of the pathogen, emergence of a new pathogen, or both when a specific rootstock is used continuously for a long period of time in the production system ( Garibaldi et al., 2008 ; Gilardi et al

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Shengrui Yao

, not branched, and alternate. Leaves are 2.5 to 5.5 cm long and 2 to 4 cm wide. Buds and shoots. Jujube shoots are different from other fruit species. Vigorous new shoots of peach, apple, and grape can have branches in the same growing season, and the

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Gad G. Yousef, Mary A. Lila, Ivette Guzman, James R. Ballington, and Allan F. Brown

warmer climates, and increased host plant resistance to insects and diseases ( Ballington, 2009 ; Brevis et al., 2008 ; Chavez and Lyrene, 2009 , 2010 ; Ehlenfeldt and Ballington, 2012 ). Issues associated with self-incompatibility and severe