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Matthew A. Escobar, Andrew Shilling, Pine Higgins, Sandra L. Uratsu, and Abhaya M. Dandekar

Primed DNA Labeling Kit (Roche Applied Science, Indianapolis, IN). This probe was used to screen a walnut pistillate flower cDNA library as described subsequently. To generate a cDNA library, total RNA was extracted from field-collected walnut

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Dinum Perera and Brian W. Trader

, Euphorbia pulcherrima , with virus-derived hairpin RNA construct confers resistance to Poinsettia mosaic virus Plant Cell Rep. 27 1027 1038 De Langhe, E. Debergh, P. Rijk, R.V. 1974 In vitro culture as a

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Xiaoying Dou, Jinrong Bai, Huan Wang, Ying Kong, Lixin Lang, Fang Bao, and Hongzhong Shang

–messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, transcriptional regulation, cytoskeletal assembly, and vesicular trafficking ( Neer et al., 1994 ). WD repeat proteins typically have several conserved regions of 40 to 60 amino acids, the sequences of which start with an N

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Choun-Sea Lin, Krishnan Kalpana, Wei-Chin Chang, and Na-Sheng Lin

prevalence of viral disease, bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV). This virus can reduce quality and cause as much as a 50% decrease in yield ( Hsu et al., 2000b ). In vitro virus-free systems that promote the successful regeneration of plants have contributed

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Meiling Zhang, Ming Chen, Zhen Wang, Ting Wu, Yi Wang, Xinzhong Zhang, and Zhenhai Han

collected after +Fe condition (40 μM FeNaEDTA) or −Fe condition (0 μM FeNaEDTA) for 3 d for RNA extraction and freezing-drying microtomy. Freezing-drying microtomy and SR-μXRF. Root samples of 1-cm length were cut off from the root tip and embedded quickly

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Xiaoling He, Susan C. Miyasaka, Yi Zou, Maureen M.M. Fitch, and Yun J. Zhu

and vitamin C ( Parkinson, 1984 ). Yields of taro have been declining in many of the taro-growing countries as a result of diseases caused by a host of pathogens, which include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasmas, and nematodes ( Brooks

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Yan Hong and SiLan Dai

as the genotype of the samples, variability in the RNA obtained from different tissues or tissue treatments, variability in reverse transcription, and amplification efficiencies of primers ( Chao et al., 2012 ). Therefore, it is vital to select ideal

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Fengge Hao, Lirong Wang, Ke Cao, Xinwei Wang, Weichao Fang, Gengrui Zhu, and Changwen Chen

harvested at 3, 6, 9, and 35 d after inoculation and immediately frozen in liquid N 2 and stored at −80 °C. RNA extraction and gene expression. Plant material pooled from five plants was ground with a mortar and pestle under liquid nitrogen into a fine

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

gene cloning at 180 d after full bloom (DAFB). The primers used are shown in Supplemental Table 1 and were designed based on the apple genome sequencing in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The total RNA was isolated using an

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Yuji Yamada, Masayoshi Nakayama, Hiromitsu Shibata, Sanae Kishimoto, and Takashi Ikeda

the retention times and absorption spectra (400–510 nm) were compared. RNA extraction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Total RNA extraction was performed following the methods of Matsushita et al. (2016) and Okutsu et al. (2018