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E.A. Guertal

, such as with urea N. This review article will not examine the use of natural organic N sources, and will focus instead on those slow-release products that are slow release due to a synthetic manufacturing process. This would include the second and third

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Syuan-You Lin and Shinsuke Agehara

dormancy-breaking agents should have not only high efficacy but also a favorable safety profile and low application costs. Some fertilizers, such as ZS and urea, are highly effective in defoliating fruit crops ( Chapman et al., 1979 ; Dhillon et al., 2018

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Kelly T. Morgan, Kent E. Cushman, and Shinjiro Sato

have been restored. Slow-release materials Two manufactured SRF materials that require microbial degradation are ureaformaldahyde (UF) and methylene urea (MU). A typical UF contains ≈38% N with about 30% of total N being water soluble. This material is

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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Steven A. Sargent

-coated urea that protect nutrients against leaching from the root zone to become an environmental pollutant ( Slater, 2010 ; Trenkel, 2010 ). Approximately 40% of the Florida fresh-market tomato industry uses seepage irrigation as a result of low operating

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Zhao Xiang, Zhu Huisen, Gao Yang, and Li Deying

, July, and August to supplement the loss from leaching, and resulted in a soil EC of 1.2 and 1.4 dS·m –1 at the end of Oct. 2015 and 2016, respectively. Fertilization treatments included six N sources: 1) nitrate, 2) urea-N, 3) ammonium (containing 24

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Danijela Janjanin, Marko Karoglan, Mirjana Herak Ćustić, Marijan Bubola, Mirela Osrečak, and Igor Palčić

of foliar use of different N forms have been reported, including comparison of urea, nitrate, and NH 4 + ( Porro et al., 2010 ). Moreover, foliarly applied proline, phenylalanine, and urea were compared with commercial nitrogen fertilizers

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Dustin P. Meador and Paul R. Fisher

% conversion of free Cl to chloramines after 0.2 s at pH 7 or 147 s at pH 4 ( White, 1992 ). In horticulture irrigation, water-soluble fertilizer containing ammonium, nitrate, and/or urea N is often supplied in irrigation between 100 and 200 mg·L −1 total N

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Kyle Briscoe, Grady Miller, Scott Brinton, Dan Bowman, and Charles Peacock

( Table 1 ). Three programs consisted of stabilized urea (Uflexx; Agrotain Intl., St. Louis, MO) applied at an N rate of 12 to 24 kg·ha −1 /week, the fourth program consisted of polymer-coated urea applied at an N rate of 96 kg·ha −1 /month, and the fifth

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Esmaeil Fallahi and Thomas Eichert

absorbed in too high rates. Therefore, foliar N application compounds with rather high DRH values, such as urea, should be selected when the environmental conditions such as RH and temperature permit ( Eichert and Fernandez, 2012 ). Practical foliar

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Laura Elisa Acuña-Maldonado and Marvin P. Pritts

concentrations (3% to 10%) of foliar urea solutions applied in the fall to increase N reserves ( Cheng and Fuchigami, 2002 ; Khemira et al., 1999 ; O'Kennedy et al., 1975 ; Oland, 1963 ). Plant N status appears to influence the capacity to respond to