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Sharon J.B. Knewtson, Rhonda Janke, M.B. Kirkham, Kimberly A. Williams, and Edward E. Carey

useful as a survey tool. Chemical indicators of soil quality include measurement of salinity. A combination of excessive fertilizer applications, irrigation, and poor drainage can induce salinity ( Brady and Weil, 1999 ), so in some high tunnels, it may

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Sheng Chen, Zhenchang Wang, Zhanyu Zhang, Xiangping Guo, Mengyang Wu, Ghulam Rasool, Rangjian Qiu, and Xiaojun Wang

associated with a low Ca 2+ concentration in the fruit tissue ( Ho and White, 2005 ). Overirrigation with fresh or brackish water before planting is a common practice for growing crops in areas with high salinity ( Dong et al., 2010 ). Using this approach

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Genhua Niu, Terri Starman, and David Byrne

In arid and semiarid regions, high-quality water supply is often limited and soil salinity is often high as a result of low rainfall and high evapotranspiration. With a rapid increase in urban populations, the intense competition for high

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Yi Zhang, Xiao-Hui Hu, Yu Shi, Zhi-Rong Zou, Fei Yan, Yan-Yan Zhao, Hao Zhang, and Jiu-Zhou Zhao

Salinity-alkalinity mixed stress is becoming one of the most serious environmental restrictions on plant production. It causes intracellular ionic imbalance, low osmotic potential (ψ S ), membrane dysfunction, attenuation of metabolic activity, and

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Lissie Aguiniga

, industry, and recreational users has promoted the use of alternative water sources for irrigation. These sources include recycled water, treated effluents, and saline ground (well) waters that contain relatively high levels of soluble salts. Soil salinity

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Haifeng Xing, Julie Hershkowitz, Asmita Paudel, Youping Sun, Ji Jhong Chen, Xin Dai, and Matthew Chappell

Saline soils affect more than 800 million ha of land worldwide, which equates to more than 6% of total arable land area ( Muchate et al., 2016 ; Munns, 2005 ). This trend continues as new fertile and productive soils are heavily cropped and

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Pedro García-Caparrós, Alfonso Llanderal, and María Teresa Lao

the world, in part, due to increased salinity in both soil and water ( Cassaniti et al., 2013 ). This is the case for the southeastern coastal areas of Spain where there is high water salinity due to saltwater intrusion into some groundwater aquifers

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María José Gómez-Bellot, Pedro Antonio Nortes, María Fernanda Ortuño, María Jesús Sánchez-Blanco, Karoline Santos Gonçalves, and Sebastián Bañón

is its salinity. Among the many effects, salinity generates the decrease in the ψ S of the medium, which, as a consequence, increases the difficulty of the plant to take water from the medium ( Neumann, 1997 ). In saline conditions, reductions in the

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Genhua Niu, Pedro Osuna, Youping Sun, and Denise S. Rodriguez

Soil salinization is a global concern, especially in arid and semiarid regions with large and growing populations. It is becoming even more intense because high-quality irrigation water is limited and alternative water sources such as municipal

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Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Jungmin Lee

Saline groundwater, recycled irrigation water from agricultural runoff, and wastewater captured from municipal and industrial effluents are being used more frequently to irrigate crops worldwide ( Garrido et al., 2014 ). These water sources are