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Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, María del Pilar Vera-Hoyos, Natalia Jiménez-Beltrán, and Hermann Restrepo-Diaz

and Jonsson, 2013 ). On the other hand, chitosan is a biopolymer that induces defense responses such as lignification, cytoplasmic acidification, phytoalexin biosynthesis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and jasmonic acid biosynthesis in both

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Bo-Ling Liu, Zhi-Bin Fan, Ze-Qun Liu, Xun-Hong Qiu, and Yan-Hong Jiang

and translucent or glassy appearance, with low lignification and poor regeneration. Hyperhydricity typically occurs under stress conditions during tissue culture but has been reported after application of high concentrations of PGRs such as TDZ

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Sudeep S. Sidhu, Qingguo Huang, Robert N. Carrow, and Paul L. Raymer

units, respectively ( Wong, 2009 ). Lignification is achieved by crosslinking of monomers with a growing polymer through polymer–polymer coupling. Based on the random coupling theory, several models of lignin molecular structure have been proposed but

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Jareerat Chunthawodtiporn, Theresa Hill, Kevin Stoffel, and Allen Van Deynze

plant cell wall were considered. Cell wall strength is a defense mechanism mediated by lignification from enzyme cell wall peroxidase ( Bechinger et al., 1999 ). CanPO2 and CanPOD, two peroxidase proteins, have been studied in pepper and found to be

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Fernando Montero de Espinosa Baselga, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Michael D. Boyette, Lina M. Quesada-Ocampo, Keith D. Starke, and David W. Monks

. 2020 . < https://downloads.usda.library.cornell.edu/usda-esmis/files/02870v86p/0r967m63g/sn00bf58x/vegean20.pdf > Wang, X. Arancibia, R.A. Main, J.L. Shankle, M. 2012 Pre-harvest application of ethephon enhances skin lignification and increases the

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Lucia E. Villavicencio, Sylvia M. Blankenship, G. Craig Yencho, Judith F. Thomas, and C. David Raper

lignification of the roots, a combination that favors the development of storage roots ( Hahn and Hozyo, 1984 ). Spence and Humphries (1972) reported that the development of roots was more rapid at 25 °C than at 30 °C, but no storage roots were formed at 15 °C

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Concetta Licciardello, Biagio Torrisi, Maria Allegra, Fabiola Sciacca, Giancarlo Roccuzzo, Francesco Intrigliolo, Giuseppe Reforgiato Recupero, Paola Tononi, Massimo Delledonne, and Vera Muccilli

such as lignification, suberization, auxin metabolism, crosslinking of cell wall proteins, salt tolerance, and oxidative stress ( Passardi et al., 2005 ). GPX expression is generally up-regulated in response to stresses such as Fe deficiency ( Almansa

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Lijian Liang, Yanming Deng, Xiaobo Sun, Xinping Jia, and Jiale Su

petunia ( Petunia hybrida ) Environ. Expt. Bot. 53 225 232 Polle, A. Otter, T. Seifert, F. 1994 Apoplastic peroxidases and lignification in needles of Norway spruce ( Picea abies L.) Plant Physiol. 106 53 60 Procházková, D. Wilhelmová, N. PavlíK, M. 2015

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Sudeep S. Sidhu, Qingguo Huang, Robert N. Carrow, and Paul L. Raymer

pattern, which is derived from random oxidative coupling of lignin monomers and cross-linking of polymers via radical mechanisms; this process is known as lignification ( Ledeboer and Skogly, 1967 ). A lignin macromolecule contains monolignols randomly

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Donald J. Huber

fruit Postharvest Biol. Technol. 40 155 162 Cai, C. Xu, C. Li, X. Ferguson, I. Chen, K. 2006b Accumulation of lignin in relation to change in activities of lignification enzymes in loquat