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James R. Ault and Kayri Havens

Shoot explants from actively growing, greenhouse-maintained plants of Baptisia `Purple Smoke' were cultured in vitro for shoot initiation on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing vitamins and supplemented with 30 g·L–1 sucrose, 8.87 μm BA, and 4.14 μm K-IBA. All subsequent media were supplemented with 2.47 mm NaH2PO4 to enhance shoot growth. Single-node explants were subcultured for shoot multiplication on MS medium with either no plant growth regulator or with 2.22, 4.44, 8.87, 17.74, or 35.48 mm BA in combination with 0.0 or 4.14 μm K-IBA. Explants produced a maximum of 4.1 shoots on the medium with 2.22 μm BA. Shoots rooted on all concentrations of K-IBA (2.07, 4.14, 10.36, or 20.72 μm) and K-NAA (2.23, 4.46, 11.15, or 22.29 μm) tested. Maximum rooting was 100% on MS medium with 11.15 μm K-NAA; however, this treatment induced copious stem callusing. Rooted shoots were greenhouse-acclimatized for 2.5 weeks. Overall survival was 86%. For optimal rooting and subsequent acclimatization, treatment with 2.23 μm K-NAA is recommended; this resulted in 83% rooting and 87% acclimatization. Chemical names used: N 6 benzyladenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA); potassium salt of 1-naphthalene acetic acid (K-NAA).

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Duane W. Greene

Thidiazuron (THI) applied at full bloom (FB) at 10 or 50 mg·liter–1 thinned `McIntosh' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) and reduced return bloom. The same concentrations applied at 22 days after FB (DAFB) thinned excessively and inhibited return bloom even more. THI at 1, 5, or 15 mg·liter–1 did not thin `Empire' at FB, but when applied 18 DAFB, these concentrations achieved thinning, with 5 mg·liter–1 reducing crop load to near ideal commercial levels. Return bloom of `Empire' was not influenced by THI at these concentrations. THI increased fruit weight, flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration, and fruit asymmetry on `McIntosh' and `Empire' and reduced red pigmentation and seed count on `McIntosh', especially when applied 22 DAFB. A FB application of CPPU and THI, each at 5 or 10 mg·liter–1, on `Delicious' increased the fruit length: diameter (L: D) ratio and flesh firmness (at harvest and following 26 weeks of refrigerated storage and reduced return bloom). CPPU at either 5 or 10 mg·liter–1 increased the fruit L: D ratio more than 25 mg Promalin/liter. Chemical names used: N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron); N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine plus gibberellins A4+7 (Promalin).

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Anil P. Ranwala, Garry Legnani, and William B. Miller

Several experiments were conducted to find effective ways of utilizing gibberellin4+7 (GA4+7) and benzyladenine (BA) to prevent leaf chlorosis during greenhouse production of Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) while minimizing the undesirable side effects on stem elongation. On an absolute concentration basis, GA4+7 was much more effective than BA in preventing leaf chlorosis. Excessive levels of GA4+7, however, tended to cause stem elongation. When applied at around the visible bud stage, if the foliage was well covered with the spray solution, 25 mg·L-1 of GA4+7 was adequate for maximum protection against leaf chlorosis. Increasing the GA4+7 concentration above 25 mg·L-1 gave no additional benefit on leaf chlorosis. Two possible modes of GA4+7 uptake during a foliar spray application (absorption through leaves and stems, and root uptake of the extra run-off) were studied in terms of their relative contribution to leaf chlorosis and stem elongation. Although both modes of uptake prevented leaf chlorosis, foliar uptake was much more effective than root uptake. However, GA4+7 taken up by the roots contributed mainly to stem elongation. When sprayed to leaves on only the lower half of the plant, a 10-mL spray of either 25 or 50 mg·L-1 of each GA4+7 and BA was enough for complete protection against leaf chlorosis. Increasing volumes had no additional benefit on leaf chlorosis, but increased the chances of unwanted stem elongation.

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Henry R. Owen and Louis H. Aung

A relationship between ovary size at anthesis and final fruit diameter of 12 tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars with a range of fruit sizes, shapes, and maturation rates was determined. `Fireball', `Michigan/Ohio Hybrid', and `New Yorker' produced nonfasciated, spherical fruits of intermediate maturation rate and showed a significantly higher correlation between ovary diameter at anthesis and final fruit diameter than `Small Fry', `Roma VF', `Early Cascade', `Campbell 1327', or `Ponderosa'. A linear regression of final fruit diameter at maturity on ovary diameter at anthesis of the cultivars was highly significant (r2 = 0.92**; ÿ = 22.5X - 0.3). Continuous root application of 0.01 μm BA to seedlings of `Fireball' significantly delayed anthesis. A single foliar application of 0.37 mM NOA to `Fireball' plants at the appearance of the first inflorescence significantly increased ovary diameter on the first inflorescence, but decreased ovary diameter on the second inflorescence. Treatment with NOA altered final fruit shape but not final fruit diameter. Single foliar applications of 0.1 mM GA stimulated stem and peduncle elongation but did not affect fruit size. Chemical names used: ß-naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA), N6-benzylaminopurine (BA), gibberellic acid, (GA).

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Duane W. Greene

A range of concentrations and timings of CPPU application were evaluated in attempt to identify situations in which fruit size, flesh firmness, and soluble solids could be increased while minimizing increased incidence of fruit asymmetry and reductions in flower bud formation and fruit surface red color on 'McIntosh' apples (Malus×domestica Borkh.). The greatest response to CPPU for most attributes evaluated occurred when it was applied at fruit size between 6 mm and 16 mm. The conclusion from this series of experiments is that differential response to CPPU could not be established by altering the time of application. The response to CPPU is linear with increasing concentration. Results suggested that use of 4 to 6 mg·L-1 CPPU on apples to increase fruit size was the maximum and appropriate range to use without causing fruit asymmetry. Chemical name used: N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenyl urea (CPPU)

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James R. Ault

Shoot tip and stem segment explants collected from greenhouse-maintained plants of Hymenoxys acaulis var. glabra were cultured in vitro for shoot initiation on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30 g·L-1 sucrose, 2.5 μm BA, and 7 g·L-1 agar at a pH of 5.7. Unbranched shoot explants were subcultured to MS medium with 0.0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 8 μm BA for shoot proliferation. A maximum of 10.3 shoots per explant was produced on the medium with 2.0 μm BA. Nonrooted shoots were subcultured to MS medium with 0.0, 0.5, 2, or 8 μm K-IBA for rooting. Maximum rooting was 90% on MS medium with 0.5 μm K-IBA. Rooted shoots were greenhouse-acclimatized for 10 days. Overall survival was 75%. Chemical names used: 6-benzyl adenine (BA); potassium salt of indole-3-butyric acid (K-IBA).

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Eugenio Pérez-Molphe-Balch, Martha Evelia Pérez-Reyes, Carlos Antonio Dávila-Figueroa, and Enrique Villalobos-Amador

In vitro propagation systems were developed for Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt & Rose, Pachycereus pringlei (Berger) Britt & Rose and Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Buxb, three North American species of columnar cacti. In vitro germinated seedlings were used as a source of explants. Multiple shoot formation from areoles was achieved for three types of explants (apical, lateral, and transverse) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media supplemented with 3% sucrose, 10 g·L-1 agar and various treatments with growth regulators. The highest shoot production efficiency for C. gigantea was obtained on transverse explants cultured on a medium with 2 mg·μmL-1 (8.87 μm) BA, where 5.3 shoots per explant were obtained. In P. pringlei and S. thurberi the best response was obtained using transverse explants on medium with 1 mg·L-1 (4.44 μm) BA (3.8 and 4.3 shoots per explant, respectively). Rooting of the in vitro generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on MS basal media with 3% sucrose, 10 g·L-1 agar and 1 mg·L-1 (4.9 μm) indole-3-butyric acid. Rooting frequencies were 92%, 88%, and 96% for C. gigantea, P. pringlei and S. thurberi, respectively, and the frequency of survival of the plants once transferred to soil was 86% on average. Chemical name used: benzyladenine (BA).

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Keith A. Funnell and Royal D. Heins

The postharvest quality of potted Asiflorum lily `Donau' (Lilium hybrid) was evaluated after plants were sprayed with 0, 50, 250, or 500 mg·L-1 (BA equivalent) of Promalin (GA4+7 to BA ratio was 1:1) or Accel (GA4+7 to BA ratio 1:10) and stored at 2 to 3 °C for 0, 10, or 20 days. As storage was prolonged, more leaves senesced once plants were removed for evaluation. Leaf senescence declined with increasing concentrations of either Promalin or Accel, but Promalin was more effective. Application of 250 mg·L-1 Promalin completely eliminated leaf senescence over the 20-day shelf-life evaluation period, irrespective of duration of cold storage. The treatments did not affect flower bud opening or plant height. Chemical names used: gibberellin (GA4+7); benzyladenine (BA).

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Rongcai Yuan and Duane W. Greene

BA was applied at 50 or 100 mg·L-1 to `More-Spur McIntosh'/Malling 7 (M.7) apple trees [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] at the 10 mm stage of fruit development. BA thinned fruit and increased fruit size. There were two distinguishable peaks of fruit abscission during `June drop'. BA accentuated the naturally occurring waves of fruit abscission, and enhanced translocation of 14C-sorbitol from leaves to fruit when applied directly to the fruit, but not when applied directly to the leaves. Net photosynthesis was decreased and dark respiration was increased when temperature following BA application was high (30 °C), whereas there was no effect when temperature was lower (20 °C). Total nonstructural carbohydrates, total soluble sugars, and starch in the leaves decreased dramatically over the 12- or 13-day observation period, regardless of BA treatment. These carbohydrate concentrations in the leaves were lowered further by BA application. Abscising fruit, based on specific reddening of the pedicel, had higher carbohydrate levels than persisting fruit, regardless of BA application. We conclude that BA thins fruit, at least in part, by increasing dark respiration and decreasing net photosynthesis. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)].

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Rongcai Yuan and Duane W. Greene

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of BA, removal of bourse shoot tips including only folded leaves and growing point, and different numbers of leaves per fruit on fruit retention and fruit development in `More-Spur McIntosh'/Malling 7 (M.7) apple trees [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. Removal of the bourse shoot tip increased fruit retention, whereas BA thinned fruit regardless of whether shoot tips were removed or not. There was no interaction between BA application and shoot tipping. BA thinned fruit only when one leaf per fruit was on a girdled small fruiting branch, but not when leaf number per fruit was two or greater. Fruit weight and soluble solids concentration increased dramatically with increasing leaf number per fruit. BA reduced fruit growth rate when <16 leaves per fruit were present on the girdled branches between 3 and 7 days after treatment, but it did not affect fruit growth rate when 32 leaves per fruit were on the girdled branches. Increasing leaf number also increased viable seed number per fruit while decreasing the number of aborted seeds, but it had no effect on the number of total seeds per fruit. BA reduced the number of viable seeds per fruit only when the number of leaves per fruit was less than four. Results suggest that BA thins apple fruit mainly by reducing carbohydrates available to developing fruitlets. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)].