Climacteric `Fuji' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) were treated with water, 0.45 mmol·m–3 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP), 2 mmol·L–1 methyl jasmonate (MJ), or both MCP and MJ. Fruit were kept at 20 °C for 17 days after treatment. Ethylene production, respiration, and color change were all inhibited following MCP treatment. Ethylene production following MJ treatment fluctuated below and above that of controls, but was representative of postclimacteric apples at all times. Rates of respiration and color change were enhanced by MJ, even when fruit were previously treated with MCP. The results indicate that MJ can enhance rate of color change and respiration in apple fruit independently of ethylene action.
Xuetong Fan and James P. Mattheis
Jonathan Dixon and Errol W. Hewett
Loss of green color (yellowing) in apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) is due to chlorophyll breakdown, an enzyme-mediated reaction conforming to first-order kinetics. Nondestructive measurements of yellowing, using a tristimulus chromameter, were related to chlorophyll content for `Cox's Orange Pippin' and `Granny Smith' apples stored at temperatures of 0 to 35 °C. Yellowing determined by rate constant (k) of total chlorophyll and changes in hue angle, as a function of temperature, increased slowly from 0 to 5 °C, increased exponentially from 5 to 20 °C, reached a maximum from 20 to 24 °C, then declined at higher temperatures. Values of k and the rate of change of hue angle were characterized by a modified Arrhenius equation. `Cox's Orange Pippin' apples harvested early had lower k and lower rates of hue angle change than late-harvested fruit. Values of k and hue angle change of `Granny Smith' apples differed between years but not between harvests. The method used to characterize the relationship between yellowing and temperature may describe changes in other important quality attributes of apple fruit during storage and shelf life and help evaluate the efficacy of cool-chain handling and storage systems.
Bernard B. Bible and Richard J. McAvoy
Forty-two poinsettia cultivars were grown as a 15-cm single-plant pinched crop at 21/16.5°C (day/night) temperatures during Fall 1995 with standard commercial practices for irrigating, fertilizing, and pest control. On 7 Dec., 156 consumers rated the cultivars for their overall appeal. On 11 Dec., color coordinate (CIELAB) readings for bracts and leaves were taken with a Minolta 200b colorimeter. The colorimeter was set to illuminate C and has a 8-mm aperture. Bracts and leaves were placed on a white tile background for colorimetric readings. In 1996, a similar evaluation was conducted with 55 poinsettia cultivars. Using the L-value of leaves as a criterion, cultivars were separated into medium green-leafed and dark green-leafed groupings. For bracts among the red types, hue angle values were used to separate cultivars into cool red types (hue angle ≈20–22°) and warm red types (hue angle ≈24–25°). Based on the 1995 study, cultivars within the cool red bracts and dark green foliage group—those that were darker, duller red (lower L and chroma)—were less attractive (lower consumer ratings) than lighter, more-vivid red cultivars. For cultivars within the cool red bracts and medium green foliage group, consumers preferred the darker duller red cultivars. Perhaps dark foliage gives a more pleasing contrast with the more vivid cool reds than does the medium green foliage. In general, consumers rated red cultivars hire than non-red cultivars.
Matthew R. Mattia and John W. Scott
be the least prone to YS. It is also important to know if there is a general trend for higher SSC to be associated with green shoulder vs. u and/or other fruit color genotypes as this would suggest a breeding shift back to u + to attain better
Ji Tian, Ke-ting Li, Shi-ya Zhang, Jie Zhang, Ting-ting Song, Yong-jun Zhu, and Yun-cong Yao
color is a key determinant of the commercial value of many ornamental plant species, and Malus crabapples varieties show a diverse range of leaf, flower, and fruit and leaf colors. There are three kinds of Malus crabapples leaf-color cultivars
Gerry Henry Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, and Linda Herbert
long established, from broadcast N fertilization studies, that increasing the rate of N application can increase yield but adversely affect fruit quality by decreasing fruit color and firmness ( Oberly and Boynton, 1966 ). Much less information is
Zhe Cao, Shunzhao Sui, Qian Yang, and Zhanao Deng
hybridizations between elite cultivars or breeding lines. In recent years, significant efforts have been made to understand the mode of inheritance of several important caladium foliar traits, including leaf shape, main vein color, leaf spotting, and leaf
Pei Xu, Tingting Hu, Yuejian Yang, Xiaohua Wu, Baogen Wang, Yonghua Liu, Dehui Qin, Jeffrey Ehlers, Timothy Close, Zhongfu Lu, and Guojing Li
legumes including cowpea. Cowpea seeds with brown or white coat color are preferred in many African regions ( Drabo et al., 1987 ; Langyintuo et al., 2003 ). Leleji (1972) reported that bumble bees and honeybees show significantly preferred visitation
Gregor Osterc, Maja Mikulic Petkovsek, Franci Stampar, Biljana Kiprovski, Blanka Ravnjak, and Joze Bavcon
( Bavcon, 2009 ). The flower color of common cyclamen varies from pale washed-out pink to very deep rose pink or carmine; sometimes whitish flowers also appear, although pure white flowers are very rare ( Bavcon, 2009 , 2013 ; Bavcon and Ravnjak, 2015
J. Steven Brown, Raymond J. Schnell, Tomás Ayala-Silva, J. Michael Moore, Cecile L. Tondo, and Michael C. Winterstein
, mango color is an important factor in consumer choice ( Campbell and Campbell, 2002 ; Litz and Lavi, 1997 ), and mangos overlaid with red are especially valued both in fruit consumed in Florida and in fruits shipped to northern markets. In the past, the