Sucrose phosphate synthase [SPS (EC 18.104.22.168)] is thought to play a critical role in sucrose accumulation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit. A full-length cDNA clone encoding sucrose phosphate synthase was isolated from muskmelon by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The clone, designated CmSPS1, contains 3377 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 3162 nucleotides. The deduced 1054 amino acids sequence showed high identities with other plant sucrose phosphate synthases. Northern blot analysis indicated that CmSPS1 was expressed in leaves, stems, and mature fruit, but was not detected in roots or flowers. Moreover, the mRNA accumulation of CmSPS1 started at 25 days after pollination (DAP) and reached highest level in mature fruit. Interestingly, both sucrose content and SPS activity increased dramatically between 20 and 30 DAP during fruit development, suggesting that sucrose accumulation may be linked to the CmSPS1 transcript level in muskmelon fruit.