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Y.-K. Chen, J.P. Palta, and J.B. Bamberg

Wild potato species provide a valuable source of genetic variability for the improvement of freezing tolerance in cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum (tbr). However, breeding for freezing tolerance by using wild genetic resources has been hampered by contradictory results regarding the genetic control of this trait. Both dominance and recessiveness for this trait have been reported. To explore the genetic control of freezing tolerance, the expression of freezing tolerance was investigated in various interspecific F1 and somatic hybrids between hardy and sensitive species. In addition to 2 years of field evaluation, freezing tolerance before and after acclimation was characterized separately under controlled environments to dissect the two independent genetic components of freezing tolerance, namely nonacclimated freezing tolerance (NA) and acclimation capacity (ACC). The expression of freezing tolerance, including NA and ACC, was closer to that of hardy parent, sensitive parent, or approximate parental mean, depending on species combination. However, the expression of freezing tolerance tended to be greater when the hybrids contained more sets of chromosomes from the hardy parent than from the sensitive parent. The significance of hardy: sensitive genomic ratio was further supported by using sexual and somatic hybrids between tbr and S. commersonii (cmm) to achieve different genomic ratios without the confounding effect of species. Therefore, we propose that the hardy: sensitive genomic ratio is an important determinant for the expression level of freezing tolerance before and after cold acclimation.

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A. del Rio, J.B. Bamberg, Z. Huaman, R. Hoekstra, A. Salas, and S.E. Vega

Effects of genebank seed increases on the genetic integrity and whether germplasm in the genebank still represents the in situ populations from which it was collected are major concerns of the recently formed Association of Potato Intergenebank Collaborators (APIC), a consortium of world potato genebank leaders. This cooperative APIC research used RAPDs and morphological markers 1) to establish genetic relationships between seed increased populations within accessions and (2) to measure genetic differentiation between diploid and tetraploid potato germplasm maintained for many years and current in situ populations from the same collection sites in the wild. Solanum jamesii Torrey (2n = 2x = 24) and S. fendleri A. Gray (2n = 4x = 48), two wild potato species native to North America, were used as plant material. These species represented two major breeding systems found among Solanum species: outcrossing diploids and inbreeding disomic tetraploids, respectively. Comparisons made between populations one generation apart and between sister populations generated from a common source indicated that there has been minimal loss of genetic diversity in captive germplasm using the genebank techniques standard at NRSP-6 and other world potato genebanks. RAPD markers also revealed that significant genetic differences were found between genebank-conserved and re-collected in situ populations for all diploid potato comparisons and for about half of the comparisons within tetraploid potato populations.