Search Results

You are looking at 61 - 70 of 84 items for

  • Author or Editor: Royal D. Heins x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

Paul R. Fisher, Royal D. Heins, Niels Ehler, Poul Karlsen, Michael Brogaard, and J. Heinrich Lieth

Commercial production of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) requires precise temperature control to ensure that the crop flowers in time for Easter sales. The objective of this project was to develop and validate a greenhouse decision-support system (DSS) for producing Easter lily to predetermined height and flower date specifications. Existing developmental models were integrated with a knowledge-based system in a DSS to provide temperature recommendations optimized for Easter lily scheduling and height control. Climate data are automatically recorded in real time by linking the DSS to a greenhouse climate control computer. Set point recommendations from the DSS can be manually set or automatically implemented in real time. Potential benefits of the project include improved crop quality and the transfer, validation, and integration of research-based models. The DSS was implemented at several research and commercial locations during the 1994 Easter lily season. DSS recommendations were compared with the strategies of experienced growers. The system design, implementation, production results, quality of recommendations, and potential are discussed.

Free access

Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

Twenty-four herbaceous perennial species were treated at 5C for 0 or 15 weeks. Critical photoperiods for flower initiation and development with and without a cold treatment were determined. Photoperiods were 10, 12, 14, 16, and 24 h of continuous light and 9 h plus a 4-h night interruption. Continuous photoperiodic treatments consisted of 9-h natural days extended with light from incandescent lamps. Response to cold and photoperiod varied by species; Scabiosa caucasica `Butterfly Blue' flowered without a cold treatment under all photoperiods after 8 to 10 weeks of forcing, but plant height increased from 14 to 62 cm as daylength increased. Rudbeckia fulgida `Goldsturm' flowered without cold after 13 to 15 weeks of forcing, but only under 16 hours of continuous light and night interruption treatments. Heuchera sanguinea `Bressingham Hybrids' did not flower without cold under any photoperiod but did flower under all photoperiods with cold. The only Lavendula angustifolia `Munstead Dwarf' plants that flowered without cold were those under 24-h continuous light; ≈60% flowered. After cold, some lavender plants flowered under all photoperiods, and the flowering percentage increased with increasing daylength.

Free access

Mei Yuan, William H. Carlson, Royal D. Heins, and Arthur C. Cameron

Scheduling crops to flower for specific dates requires a knowledge of the relationship between temperature and time to flower. Our objective was to determine the relationship between temperature and time to flower of four herbaceous perennials. Field-grown, bare-root Coreopsis grandiflora `Sunray', Gaillardia grandiflora `Goblin', Rudbeckia fulgida `Goldsturm', and tissue culture-propagated Chrysanthemum superbum `Snow Cap' were exposed to 5C for 10 weeks. They were grown at 15, 18, 21, 24 or 27C under 4-h night interruption lighting. Time to visible bud (VB) and first flower (FLW) were recorded. Days to VB, days to FLW, and days from VB to FLW decreased as temperature increased. Time to flower at 15C was 70, 64, 96, and 54 days and 24, 39, 48, and 36 days at 27C for Coreopsis, Gaillardia, Rudbeckia, and Chrysanthemum, respectively. The 27C temperature apparently caused devernalization on Coreopsis because only 40% of the plants flowered. The effects of temperature on flower size, flower bud number, and plant height also are presented.

Full access

Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

In 1996 and 1997, eight cultivars of cold-treated field-grown Astilbe were grown in a 20 °C green-house with short days (SDs = 9-h natural days) or long days (LDs = 9-h natural days with night interruption with incandescent lamps from 2200 to 0200 hr) to determine how photoperiod influences flowering. Cultivars studied were Astilbe × arendsii Arends `Bridal Veil', `Cattleya', `Fanal', and `Spinell'; A. chinensis Franch. `Superba'; A. japonica A. Gray `Deutschland' and `Peach Blossom'; and A. thunbergii Miq. `Ostrich Plume'. Flowering percentage was highest (≥90%) for `Cattleya', `Deutschland', `Fanal', `Ostrich Plume', and `Peach Blossom', regardless of photoperiod. Photoperiod did not affect the time to visible inflorescence or flower number for any cultivar studied. The time from visible inflorescence to first flower took 27 to 36 days, irrespective of photoperiod. Time to flower varied by cultivar; `Deutschland' was the earliest to flower (31 to 41 days) and `Superba' was the last to flower (51 to 70 days). `Fanal' and `Ostrich Plume' flowered slightly but significantly faster (by 1 to 6 days) under LDs than SDs. For five cultivars, the inflorescence was taller under LDs than SDs. All cultivars reached visible inflorescence and flower significantly faster (by 1 to 15 days) in 1997 than in 1996.

Free access

Cheryl Hamaker, William H. Carlson, Royal D. Heins, and Arthur C. Cameron

To determine the most effective lighting strategies for flower induction of long-day (LD) plants, 10 species of herbaceous perennials were chilled at 5C for 0 or 12 weeks and then forced at 20C under the following photoperiods: short day, 4-h night interruption (4-h NI), 7-h night interruption (7-h NI), 7-h day extension, 7-h predawn (7-h PD), and 24-h continuous light (24-h). All treatments consisted of a 9-h photoperiod of sunlight supplemented with 90 μmol·m–2 from HPS lamps. LD treatments were delivered by incandescent lights and induced flowering in obligate LD plants. Rate of flowering, height, and bud number at first flower varied among species and LD treatments. Although flowering was accelerated under 24-h and 7-h NI for most species, it was delayed under 24 h for Coreopsis verticillata `Moonbeam' and Campanula carpatica. For unchilled plants of most species, flowering was delayed under 7-h PD compared to other LD treatments. Chilling decreased time to flower and reduced differences between LD treatments. Coreopsis `Moonbeam' and C. Ianceolata `Early Sunrise' were shorter when grown under 4-h NI.

Free access

Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

`Snowcap' Shasta daisy [Leucanthemum ×superbum Bergmans ex. J. Ingram (syn: Chrysanthemum ×superbum, C. maximum)] was grown under various photoperiods and temperatures to determine their effects on flowering. In the first experiment, plants were held for 0 or 15 weeks at 5 °C and then were grown at 20 °C under the following photoperiods: 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, or 24 hours of continuous light or 9 hours with a 4-hour night interruption (NI) in the middle of the dark period. Without cold treatment, no plants flowered under photoperiods ≤14 hours and 65% to 95% flowered under longer photoperiods or NI. After 15 weeks at 5 °C, all plants flowered under all photoperiods and developed three to four or 10 to 11 inflorescences under photoperiods ≤14 or ≥16 hours, respectively. To determine the duration of cold treatment required for flowering under short photoperiods, a second experiment was conducted in which plants were treated for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 weeks at 5 °C, and then grown at 20 °C under 9-hour days without or with a 4-hour NI. Under 9-hour photoperiods, 0%, 80%, or 100% of plants flowered after 0, 3, or ≥6 weeks at 5 °C, and time to flower decreased from 103 to 57 days as the time at 5 °C increased from 3 to 12 weeks. Plants that were under NI and received ≥3 weeks of cold flowered in 45 to 55 days. For complete and rapid flowering with a high flower count, we recommend cold-treating `Snowcap' for at least 6 weeks, then providing photoperiods ≥16 hours or a 4-hour NI during forcing.

Free access

Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

Phlox paniculata Lyon ex Pursh `Eva Cullum' plants were grown under seven photoperiods following 0 or 15 weeks of 5 °C to determine the effects of photoperiod and cold treatment on flowering. Photoperiods were a 9-hour day extended with incandescent lamps to 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, or 24 hours; an additional treatment was a 9-hour day with a 4-hour night interruption (NI). Noncooled plants remained vegetative under photoperiods ≤13 hours; as the photoperiod increased from 14 to 24 hours, flowering percentage increased from 20 to 89. Flowering of noncooled plants took 73 to 93 days. Flowering percentage was 19, 50, or 100 when cooled plants were held under photoperiods of 10, 12, or ≥13 hours or NI, respectively. Time to flower in cooled plants progressively decreased from 114 to 64 days as the photoperiod increased from 10 to 24 hours. Reproductive cooled plants had at least three times more flowers, were at least 50% taller, were more vigorous, and developed seven or eight more nodes than did noncooled plants. Photoperiod had no effect on height of flowering plants.

Free access

Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

To determine the flowering requirements of Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. `Goldsturm', plants were grown under 9-hour photoperiods until maturity, then forced at 20 °C under one of seven photoperiods following 0 or 15 weeks of 5 °C. Photoperiods consisted of a 9-hour day that was extended with incandescent lamps to 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, or 24 hours; an additional treatment was a 9-hour day with a 4-hour night interruption (NI). Noncooled `Goldsturm' remained vegetative under photoperiods ≤13 hours, and essentially all plants flowered under photoperiods ≥14 hours or with a 4-hour NI. Flowering percentages for cooled plants were 6, 56, or ≥84 under 10-, 12-, or ≥13-hour daylengths and NI, respectively. Critical photoperiods were ≈14 or 13 hours for noncooled or cooled plants, respectively, and base photoperiods shifted from 13 to 14 hours before cold treatment to 10 to 12 hours following cold treatment. Within cold treatments, plants under photoperiods ≥14 hours or NI reached visible inflorescence and flowered at the same time and developed the same number of inflorescences. Fifteen weeks of cold hastened flowering by 25 to 30 days and reduced nodes developed before the first inflorescence by 28% to 37%. Cold treatment provided little or no improvement in other measured characteristics, such as flowering percentage and uniformity, flower number, plant height, and vigor.

Free access

Catherine M. Whitman, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

The influence of cold treatments on flowering in Campanula carpatica Jacq. `Blue Clips' was determined. Plants with 10 to 12 nodes (P1) and 12 to 16 nodes (P2), in 128-cell (10-mL cell volume) and 50-cell (85-mL cell volume) trays, respectively, were stored at 5 °C for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 14 weeks under a 9-hour photoperiod. They then were transplanted and forced in a 20 °C greenhouse under a 9-hour photoperiod with a 4-hour night interruption (NI) (2200 to 0200 hr). Time to visible bud and to flowering in P1 decreased slightly as the duration of cold treatment increased. Flowering was hastened by ≈10 days after 14 weeks at 5 °C. Cold treatments had no significant effect on time to visible bud or flower in P2. The number of flower buds on P1 did not change significantly in response to cold treatments, while flower bud count on P2 increased by up to 60% as duration of cold treatments increased. Final height at flowering of both ages decreased 10% to 20% with increasing duration of cold exposure. To determine the relationship between forcing temperature and time to flower, three plant sizes were forced under a 9-hour photoperiod with a 4-hour NI (2200 to 0200 hr) at 15, 18, 21, 24, or 27 °C. Plants flowered more quickly at higher temperatures, but the number and diameter of flowers were reduced. Days to visible bud and flowering were converted to rates, and base temperature (Tb) and thermal time to flowering (degree-days) were calculated. Average Tb for forcing to visible bud stage was 2.1 °C; for forcing to flower, 0.0 °C. Calculated degree-days to visible bud were 455; to flower, 909.

Free access

Emily A. Clough, Arthur C. Cameron, Royal D. Heins, and William H. Carlson

Oenothera fruticosa L.`Youngii-Lapsley' and Stokesia laevis L'Hér. `Klaus Jelitto' are two hardy herbaceous perennials with great potential as pot crops. The vernalization and photoperiod requirements were examined for each species. Plants were cooled for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 weeks at 5 °C with a 9-h photoperiod. After cold treatment, plants were forced in greenhouses at 20 °C under a 16-h photoperiod using high-pressure sodium lamps. The photoperiod requirement was determined by forcing plants at 20 °C with and without a 15-week cold treatment at 5 °C under 10-, 12-, 13-, 14-, 16-, 24-h and 4-h night interruption using incandescent lamps. Plants of Oenothera fruticosa `Youngii-Lapsley' cooled for 0 weeks did not flower. All plants cooled for 3 weeks flowered and time to flower decreased from 53 to 43 days as duration of cold increased from 3 to 15 weeks. `Youngii-Lapsley' flowered under every photoperiod, but time to flower and number of flowers decreased from 54 to 40 days as photoperiod increased from 10 to 24 h. Percentage flowering of Stokesia laevis `Klaus Jelitto' increased from 50 to 100, and time to flower decreased from 112 to 74 days as duration of cold increased from 0 to 6 weeks. Without a cold treatment, plants of `Klaus Jelitto' flowered only under daylengths of 12, 13, and 14 h. After cold treatment, plants flowered under every photoperiod except 24 h, and time to flower decreased from 122 to 65 days as photoperiod increased from 10 to 16 h. Additional aspects of flowering and the effect of different forcing temperatures will be discussed.