Influence of season of the year, cutting week within a propagation cycle (number of weeks from which a stock plant has been harvested), stock plant age, and rooting compound on postpropagation cutting quality, and adventitious rooting was examined for ‘Stained Glass’ coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides). Cuttings were of higher quality and produced more robust root systems when a propagation cycle started in summer vs. fall or spring even when cuttings were harvested from stock plants of the same age. Cutting week within a propagation cycle significantly influenced postpropagation cutting quality and rooting when cuttings were harvested over many weeks from the same stock plants and when cuttings were harvested for three propagation events using stock plants of different ages. When cuttings were harvested on the same days from stock plants of three distinct ages, cuttings harvested in the first week were larger with greater root weights but had more yellowed leaves and lower quality ratings compared with the two subsequent cutting weeks, but stock plant age had no effect on any observed parameter. Treatment with rooting compound did not overcome the significant influences of season and cutting week within a propagation cycle whether rooting was carried out in a greenhouse or growth chamber. Shoot and root fresh and dry weights were positively correlated with both daylength and midday instantaneous light of the stock plant environment.
Brigitte D. Crawford, John M. Dole, and Ben A. Bergmann
Nathan J. Jahnke, John M. Dole, and H. David Shew
Postharvest environments during storage and shipping are often conducive to plant stress and disease development. Liners of four cultivars of geraniums (Pelargonium ×hortorum) were evaluated every 2 days for their susceptibility to gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) and leaf yellowing over an 8-day simulated shipping period at either constant air temperature of 15 °C or variable air temperatures cycling every 24 hours between 10 and 30 °C. The latter treatment was created using air temperature logs of commercial liner shipments sent to five locations during Spring 2016 and Fall 2016. We sprayed a spore suspension of 2 × 104 or 2 × 106 to inoculate liners before they were subjected to the two temperature treatments. Disease ratings did not reach significant levels for the dry control until day 6 of storage. Regardless of the spore concentration, ratings were similar for inoculated cuttings. Independent of the storage temperature and spore concentration, liners developed minor lesions by day 2 of storage. Cultivars varied slightly in disease ratings, with Tango Dark Red being the most susceptible, followed by Patriot Bright Red, Patriot Rose Pink, and Americana Red. During the 8-day incubation period, ‘Patriot Rose Pink’ developed the most leaf yellowing compared with the other three cultivars. Liners that experienced variable air temperatures had marginal leaf yellowing by day 2, and this yellowing increased throughout the experiment. Liners placed at 15 °C had ≈50% less leaf yellowing compared with liners exposed to variable air temperatures until day 8, when leaf yellowing was similar between the two air temperature treatments. Disease caused by B. cinerea was avoided when simulated shipping was 2 days or fewer, and a stable air temperature of 15 °C reduced leaf yellowing on geranium liners compared with variable air temperatures.
Jaime K. Morvant, John M. Dole, and Earl Allen
Pelargonium hortorum Bailey `Pinto Red' plants were grown with 220 mg·L−1 N (20N-4.4P-16.6K) using hand (HD), microtube (MT), ebb-and-flow (EF), and capillary mat (CM) irrigation systems. At harvest, root balls were sliced into three equal regions: top, middle, and bottom. A negative correlation existed between root medium electrical conductivity (EC) and N concentration to root number such that the best root growth was obtained with low medium EC and N concentrations. EF root numbers were greatest in the middle region. The two subirrigation systems (EF and CM) had higher average root numbers than the two surface-irrigation systems (HD and MT). For all irrigation systems, root numbers were lowest in the top region. In general, less difference in medium soluble salt and N concentrations existed between regions for surface-irrigated than for subirrigated root balls. Soluble salt concentration was lowest in the bottom and middle regions of EF and the bottom region of MT and CM. For subirrigation, the highest medium soluble salt and N concentration was in the top region. For all systems, pH was lowest in the bottom region. Plant growth for all irrigation systems was similar. EF and MT systems required the least water and EF resulted in the least runoff volume.
Bridget K. Behe, Paul B. Redman, and John M. Dole
Consumer flower-color preferences are of interest to market researchers, plant producers, and retailers because this information can help them to anticipate accurately the sales product mix. Our objective was to determine consumer bract-color preferences for 47 poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) cultivars. Visitors (124) to the Franklin Park Conservatory in Columbus, Ohio, rated `Sonora', a red cultivar, highest (4.6 of 5.0) of any cultivar. Nine of ten highest rated cultivars were red. We compared the ratings of poinsettia buyers with those of nonpoinsettia buyers and found only one difference: nonpoinsettia buyers rated `Jingle Bells III', a marble cultivar, higher (4.3) than poinsettia buyers (3.8). We also compared consumers who had purchased a red poinsettia to those who had purchased nonred colors and found that red poinsettia buyers rated `Sonora' higher (4.9) than nonred poinsettia buyers (4.5). Men rated `Red Elegance' higher (3.7) than women (3.3), whereas women rated `Freedom White' higher (3.1) than men (2.4). We found few differences between men and women, buyers and nonbuyers, and nonred buyers and red buyers, which may indicate a relatively homogeneous market that does not greatly differentiate among poinsettia bract color.
Michael D. Frost, Janet C. Cole, and John M. Dole
Improving the quality of water released from containerized production nurseries and greenhouse operations is an increasing concern in many areas of the United States. The potential pollution threat to our ground and potable water reservoirs via the horticultural industry needs to receive attention from growers and researchers alike. `Orbit Red' geraniums were grown in 3:1 peat:perlite medium with microtube irrigation to study the effect of fertilizer source on geranium growth, micronutrient leaching, and nutrient distribution. Manufacturer's recommended rates of controlled-release (CRF) and water-soluble fertilizers (WSF) were used to fulfill the micronutrient requirement of the plants. Minimal differences in all growth parameters measured between WSF and CRF were determined. A greater percentage of Fe was leached from the WSF than CRF. In contrast, CRF had a greater percentage of Mn leached from the system than WRF during the experiment. Also, regardless of treatment, the upper and middle regions of the growing medium had a higher nutrient concentration than the lower region of medium.
Cristian E. Loyola, John M. Dole, and Rebecca Dunning
In the United States and Canada, there has been an increase in the demand for local specialty cut flowers and a corresponding increase in production. To assess the needs of the industry, we electronically surveyed 1098 cut flower producers and handlers in the United States and Canada regarding their current cut flower production and postharvest problems, and customer issues. We received a total of 210 responses, resulting in a 19% response rate. The results showed that the main production problem was insect management; crop timing was the second most important problem and disease management was the third. Crop timing encompasses a range of related issues such as determining the correct harvest stage, harvest windows that are too short, flowering all at once, or lack of control when the crop is ready to harvest. The main postharvest problems were temperature management, hydration, and flower food management. Timing and stem length were the two most mentioned species-specific production issues, with each one listed by 10% or more of the respondents for eight of the total 31 species. Regarding on-farm postharvest handling, hydration and vase life were the two most mentioned issues; they were reported for five and three species, respectively. For postharvest during storage and transport, damage and hydration were the most common issues; these were listed for three species each. The most commonly mentioned customer complaints were vase life and shattering, which were reported for six and two species, respectively. These results will allow researchers and businesses to focus on the major cut flower production and postharvest issues and on crops that are most in need of improvement in North America.
Todd J. Cavins, John M. Dole, and Vicki Stamback
Anemone (Anemone coronaria L.), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.), larkspur [Consolida ambigua (L.) P.W. Ball & Heyw.], delphinium (Delphinium ×cultorum Voss.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), lupine (Lupinus hartwegii Lindl.), stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.], and pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams.) were grown in raised sandy loam ground beds in double-layered polyethylene-covered greenhouses which were either unheated (ambient) or had a 55 °F (13 °C) minimum night temperature in year 1 and 36 or 50 °F (2 or 10 °C) minimum night temperature in year 2. Results were species specific; however, the extreme low temperatures [21 °F (-6 °C)] in the unheated house limited delphinium and lupine production. The warmest greenhouses (55 and 50 °F) reduced production time for anemone, delphinium, larkspur, lupine (year 2), snapdragon (year 2),stock, and sunflower. The coolest greenhouses (unheated and 36 °F) increased stem lengths for anemone (year 2), delphinium, larkspur (year 1), lupine (year 2), snapdragon, stock, and sunflower. The coolest green-houses also yielded a profit or lower net loss for all species except delphinium, lupine, and snapdragon (year 2) for which profits were highest or net losses were lowest in the warmest greenhouses.
Iftikhar Ahmad, John M. Dole, and Bruno T. Favero
Effects of pulsing with different concentrations of gibberellin plus benzyladenine (GA4+7 + BA), a proprietary mixture of GA4+7 plus BA in a commercial floral preservative (GA4+7 + BA + preservative), or a propriety mixture of sugar plus acidifier developed for bulbous flowers (floral bulb preservative) were studied on postharvest performance and quality of cut lily (Lilium hybrids) and gladiolus (Gladiolus hybrids) flowers. Pulsing of cut stems of lily with GA4+7 + BA at 5 or 2 mL·L−1 GA4+7 + BA + preservative for 20 hours at 3 ± 1 °C extended the vase life and controlled leaf chlorosis of ‘Cobra’ oriental lily and ‘Cappuccino’ and ‘Dot Com’ asiatic lily. Cut ‘Orange Art’ asiatic lily performed best when pulsed with GA4+7 + BA at 10 mg·L−1. For cut gladiolus, pulsing with GA4+7 + BA at 10 mg·L−1 extended the vase life of ‘Alice’, ‘Mammoth’, and ‘Passion’, while ‘Scarlet’ had the longest vase life when pulsed with 5 mg·L−1 GA4+7 + BA. GA4+7 + BA + preservative also extended the vase life and controlled leaf chlorosis, but the floral bulb preservative had no effect on vase life extension or preventing leaf chlorosis of lilies. Gladiolus cultivars had no or minor leaf chlorosis during vase period. Overall, overnight pulsing with GA4+7 + BA or GA4+7 + BA + preservative extended the vase life and prevented leaf chlorosis and can be used by growers and wholesalers for maintaining quality of cut stems.
Janet C. Cole, John M. Dole, and Vicki L. Stamback
Water quality has become a significant issue in the nursery industry. Local testing of runoff contamination from nursery production is, however, of little value to other growers because of the variation in management practices and nursery layouts. Two nursery blocks have been designed and constructed to test runoff from production with sprinkler and drip irrigation systems in combination with constant liquid fertilization and controlled release fertilizers. Management practices using various combinations of irrigation systems with fertilizer application rates are being tested in a small area with reasonable control of inputs. Preliminary data has shown no difference in plant response to irrigation method, but runoff was significantly reduced with drip irrigation. Plant quality was better with controlled release fertilizer, which generally yielded less N and P contamination in runoff, than constant liquid fertilization except during extremely hot weather.
D. Steve Owens, Michael A. Schnelle, and John M. Dole
Rock garden plants, typically alpine in nature, are indigenous to higher elevations and thus perform poorly in the South. Consequently, they are not adapted to environments with tight clay soils, extreme heat, high humidity, and periodic drought. A video and extension circular were produced to demonstrate the construction, planting and maintenance of an appealing yet durable rock garden for Oklahoma. Modifications in soil type, plant materials, and arrangement of rock, wherein small micro-habitats are created, comprise the core of the project. The aforementioned educational materials benefit the gardening public with previously unavailable information for Oklahoma. The video is included in the Oklahoma State Univ. Cooperative Extension Service video library, where it is available via rental or purchase. It provides informative visual instruction, complementing the written publication that outlines stepwise construction techniques coupled with a list of adaptable plants. Both the publication and video may have applications for gardeners in peripheral states.