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Duane W. Greene, Wesley R. Autio, Jeffrey A. Erf, and Zhongyuan Y. Mao

BA thinned apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruits when applied to either the leaves or the fruit, although it was much more effective when applied to the leaves. BA increased fruit size independent of its effects on reducing crop load, but only when applied directly to the fruit. When applied to one of two fruit in a cluster, BA had no influence on abscission, fruit size, or fruit characteristics of the adjacent nontreated fruit. BA reduced fruit flesh Ca only on treated fruit and the response was inversely proportional to the increase in fruit size. More than 60% of the BA applied to a fruit was absorbed during 24 hours, and this amount was considerably larger than penetration through either the abaxial or adaxial leaf surface. BA treatments that thinned also increased ethylene production linearly in both leaves and fruit 24 hours after application, but the magnitude of increase was not considered large enough to be the primary cause for thinning. BA thinned spurs with two or three fruit more than spurs with one fruit, and it did not selectively thin to just one fruit per cluster. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)].

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Wesley R. Autio, James Krupa, Jon M. Clements, and Duane W. Greene

In 2004, at full bloom, 3-year-old `Cameo'/G.16, `Gala'/M.9 NA-KBT337, `Gala'/G.16, and `Redmax'/B.9 apple trees were treated with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, 1.5% in latex paint) in a 7.5-cm band completely around the central leader at the base of 2-year-old wood. NAA treatment reduced 2004 extension growth of the central leader by 14% and total shoot growth above the treatment area by 32%. `Cameo'/G.16 trees also were sprayed with prohexadione-Ca (250 ppm with surfactant and water conditioner) at full bloom, and additional trees were sprayed with ethephon (500 ppm with surfactant) 1 week after full bloom. These spray treatments were made only to the stems and foliage from the base of the central leader's 2-year-old wood to the top of the canopy. Ethephon reduced total shoot growth in 2004 by 26%, and prohexadione-Ca reduced it by 63%. Prohexadione-Ca also reduced fruit set of `Cameo' in 2004. Scoring (single knife cut completely around the circumference of the trunk) at the base of the 2-year-old wood in the `Cameo' trees resulted in a 23% reduction in leader growth and a 22% in totals shoot growth in the upper canopy in 2004. In 2005 at full bloom, 4-year-old `Golden Delicous'/B.9 trees were treated with NAA similarly to trees in 2004, except treatment at the base of 2-year-old wood was compared to treatment at the base of 1-year-old wood. Treating the base of 1-year-old wood reduced growth to a greater degree than comparable treatment at the base of 2-year-old wood. For the 1- and 2-year-old-wood treatments, the number of laterals produced from the 1-year-old wood was reduced 42% and 17%, and total shoot growth from 1-year-old wood was reduced by 49% and 31%, respectively.

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Laura K. Hunsberger, Carolyn J. DeMoranville, Hilary A. Sandler, and Wesley R. Autio

Uniformity of sand deposition on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) farms was examined to evaluate the potential use of two sanding methods to suppress swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii) seedling emergence by seed burial. During a 2-year study, 24 farms were evaluated with sand applied by either water barge or directly on ice. To measure the depth of sand deposited on the surface, soil cores were taken every 5 m in a grid pattern on a randomly selected portion of a commercial Massachusetts cranberry farm. Both application methods delivered nonuniform depositions of sand with the majority of the samples measuring less than the target depth. Surface diagrams depicting sand depths indicated no particular patterns of error or deposition that could be advantageously adjusted by the grower at the time of application. Mean actual: target depth ratios were 63% and 66% for barge and ice sanding, respectively (100% indicating actual equaled target). In the best scenario (two farms), 47% of the sanded area received less than the target amount; 11 farms had at least 90% of actual sand depths below the target depth. For farmers targeting 25-mm sand depths (depth expected to suppress dodder germination), the mean actual: target depth ratio was 58%, indicating half of the actual sand depths measured less than 15 mm. Compaction of the sand layer due to the elapsed time period (6 weeks or more) between sand application and measurement may have contributed to the large number of samples that were lower than the target depth. Even so, the irregularity of deposition patterns and the large proportion of sand depths that were less than 25 mm indicated adequate suppression of dodder seedling emergence would be unlikely with either sanding method.

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Wesley Autio*, John Cline, Robert Crassweller, Charles Embree, Elena Garcia, Emily Hoover, Kevin Kosola, Ronald Perry, and Terence Robinson

`McIntosh' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica (Borkh.)] on five semidwarfing rootstocks (CG.4814, CG.7707, G.30N, M.7 EMLA, and Supporter 4) were planted at 10 locations (MA, MI MN NS 2 in NY ON PA VT and WI) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), trees on CG.7707, G.30N, Supporter 4, and M.7 EMLA were significantly larger than those on CG.4814. Cumulative root suckering was most from trees on M.7 EMLA, and least from trees on CG.7707, G.30N, and Supporter 4. Yield per tree in 2002 and cumulatively was greatest from trees on G.30N and least from trees on CG.7707 and M.7 EMLA. In 2002 and cumulatively, CG.4814 resulted in the greatest yield efficiency, and M.7 EMLA resulted in the lowest. In 2002, fruit from trees on M.7 EMLA were largest, and those from trees on CG.4814 were smallest. On average, M.7 EMLA resulted in the largest fruit, and G.30N resulted in the smallest. Limited data will be presented on CG.6210, CG.8, G.30T, and M.26 EMLA, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Wesley Autio*, John Cline, Robert Crassweller, Charles Embree, Elena Garcia, Emily Hoover, Kevin Kosola, Ronald Perry, and Terence Robinson

`McIntosh' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica (Borkh.)] on 10 dwarfing rootstocks (CG.3041, CG.4013, CG.5179, CG.5202, G.16N, G.16T, M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3) were planted at 10 locations (MA, MI MN NS 2 in NY ON PA VT and WI) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), trees on CG.5202 and CG.4013 were significantly larger than those on all other rootstocks. Smallest trees were on M.9 NAKBT337. Trees on other rootstocks were intermediate. Rootstock did not influence cumulative root suckering. Yield per tree in 2002 was greatest from trees on CG.4013 and lowest from trees on M.9 NAKBT337; however, cumulatively, trees on M.9 NAKBT337 and CG.4013 yielded the most. Yield efficiency in 2002 was not affected by rootstock. Cumulatively, rootstock had very little effect, but trees on CG.5202 were the least efficient. In 2002, M.9 NAKBT337, CG.3041, and Supporter 2 resulted in the largest fruit, and CG.5179 resulted in the smallest. On average, M.9 NAKBT337 resulted in the largest fruit, and G.16T resulted in the smallest. Limited data will be presented on CG.5935 and M.26 EMLA, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Wesley Autio*, LaMar Anderson, Bruce Barritt, Robert Crass-weller, David Ferree, George Greene, Scott Johnson, Joseph Masabni, Michael Parker, and Gregory Reighard

`Fuji' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica. (Borkh.)] on five semidwarfing rootstocks (CG.4814, CG.7707, G.30N, M.26 EMLA, and M.7 EMLA) were planted at nine locations (CA, KY MO NC OH PA SC UT and WA) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), trees on CG.7707 and M.7 EMLA were the largest, and those on M.26 EMLA were the smallest. M.7 EMLA resulted in more cumulative root suckering per tree than did any other rootstock. Yield per tree in 2002 and cumulatively was greatest from trees on CG.4814, CG.7707, and G.30N and least from trees on M.26 EMLA and M.7 EMLA. The most yield efficient trees in 2002 and cumulatively were on CG.4814, and the least efficient trees were on M.26 EMLA and M.7 EMLA. Rootstock did not affect fruit weight in 2002; however, on average, CG.7707 resulted in the largest fruit, and CG.4814 resulted in the smallest. Limited data will be presented on CG.6210, G.30T, and Supporter 4, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Wesley Autio*, LaMar Anderson, Bruce Barritt, Robert Crass-weller, David Ferree, George Greene, Scott Johnson, Joseph Masabni, Michael Parker, and Gregory Reighard

`Fuji' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica (Borkh.)] on nine dwarfing rootstocks (CG.4013, CG.5179, G.16N, G.16T, M.9 NAKBT337, M.26 EMLA, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3) were planted at 10 locations (CA, KY MO NC OH 2 in PA SC UT and WA) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), largest trees were on CG.4013. Smallest trees were on M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3. Trees on CG.5179, G.16 N, G.16T, and M.26 EMLA were intermediate. Cumulative root suckering was greatest from trees on CG.4013 and similar from the other rootstocks. CG.4013, CG.5179, and G.16T resulted in the greatest yields per tree in 2002, and M.26 EMLA, M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 2, and Supporter 1 resulted in the lowest. Cumulatively, CG.4013 resulted in the greatest yields per tree, and M.26 EMLA resulted in the lowest. Rootstock did not affect yield efficiency in 2002, but cumulatively, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3 resulted in the most efficient trees, and M.26 EMLA the least. Fruit weight in 2002 or on average was not affected by rootstock. Limited data will be presented on CG.3041, CG.5202, and CG.5935, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Emily E. Hoover, Richard P. Marini, Emily Tepe, Wesley R. Autio, Alan R. Biggs, Jon M. Clements, Robert M. Crassweller, Daniel D. Foster, Melanie J. Foster, Peter M. Hirst, Diane Doud Miller, Michael L. Parker, Gregory M. Peck, Jozsef Racsko, Terence L. Robinson, and Michele R. Warmund

Researchers have collected a considerable amount of data relating to apple (Malus ×domestica) cultivars and rootstocks over the past 30 years, but much of this information is not easily accessible. The long-term goal of our working group is to increase access to this information using online technology available through eXtension. In eXtension, researchers and extension personnel are developing a community of practice (CoP) to increase the quality and amount of online information for individuals interested in our work [referred to as a community of interest (CoI)]. For this project, our CoI is broadly defined as commercial apple producers, nursery professionals, county extension educators, Extension Master Gardeners, home gardeners, and consumers. Our CoP is developing diverse educational tools, with the goals of increasing productivity, profitability, and sustainability for commercial apple production. Additionally, we will provide other members of our CoI access to research-based, reliable information on the culture of apples. We chose to begin our focus on cultivars and rootstocks adapted to the eastern United States and will add other U.S. regions as our resources and interest in our project grows.