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James E. Faust and Royal D. Heins

An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m-2. Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint.

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Meriam G. Karlsson and Royal D. Heins

The relative progression of lateral shoot elongation from pinch to flower of chrysanthemum [Dendranthema grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitamura `Bright Golden Anne'] plants grown under 2 to 22 mol·day-1·m-2 photosynthetic photon flux and 10 to 20C was modeled using Richards function. Parameters for the function were determined by first transforming data of shoot length and time from pinch (start of short photoperiods) to flower to a relative scale of 0.0 to 1.0 by dividing all intermediate shoot lengths and measurement dates by final shoot length and number of days to flower, respectively. Data used for parameter estimation originated with plants grown at a daily average of ≤20C, since those grown at a daily average above 20C exhibited delayed morphological flower induction and reached 50% of the final shoot length earlier in development. Relative shoot elongation was described by Richards function in the following form: Relative shoot length = SF × {1 + [(SF/SO)N-1] e-SF Kt}-1/N where t (relative time) = 0.0 to 1.0, SF (maximum relative shoot length) = 1.018, SO (relative shoot length at t = o) = 0.0131, N (model parameter related to the shape of the curve) =0.3923, and K (model parameter related to mean relative growth rate) = 5.8138.

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James E. Faust and Royal D. Heins

The effects of temperature and daily-integrated photosynthetic photon flux (PPFDI) on African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.) flower initiation and development were quantified to provide the basis for an inflorescence development model. The percentage of leaf axils in which an inflorescence initiated and continued development increased as the PPFDI increased from 1 to 4 mol·m-2·day-1, while the rate of inflorescence development was a function of the average daily temperature (ADT). The appearance of a visible flower bud (VB) in a leaf axil was related to the growth of the subtending leaf blade. A polynomial model based on ADT and PPFDI was used to describe leaf blade length at visible bud (LBLVB). A nonlinear model was used to describe the influence of ADT on leaf expansion rate (LER). Inflorescence appearance in the leaf axil was predicted by measuring LBL and estimating the time for the leaf blade to develop to the length required for VB. A phasic-development scale was developed to quantify inflorescence development. Days required for an inflorescence to develop from VB to first open flower was described as a function of ADT and either inflorescence height or inflorescence development stage (IDS). Days from leaf emergence to first open flower for the inflorescence initiated in that leaf axil decreased from 86 to 55 as ADT increased from 18 to 26C.

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James E. Faust and Royal D. Heins

The effect of temperature on axillary bud and lateral shoot development of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) `Eckespoint Lilo' and `Eckespoint Red Sails' was examined. Rooted `Eckespoint Lilo' cuttings were transplanted and placed into growth chambers maintained at 21, 24, 27, or 30 °C for 2 weeks before apex removal. The percentage of nodes developing lateral shoots after apex removal was 68%, 69%, 73%, or 76% at 21, 24, 27, or 30 °C, respectively. Cuttings were removed from the lateral shoots, rooted, and placed into a 21 °C greenhouse, and the apices were removed. The percentage of nodes developing into lateral shoots on cuttings taken from plants held at 21, 24, 27, and 30 °C were 74%, 65%, 66%, and 21%, respectively. Of the cuttings in the 30 °C treatment, 83% of the nodes not producing a lateral shoot had poorly developed axillary buds or no visible axillary bud development. Visual rating of axillary bud viability decreased from 100% to 0% when `Eckespoint Red Sails' plants were transferred from a 21 °C greenhouse to a greenhouse maintained at 27 °C night temperature and 30 °C for 3 hours followed by 33 °C for 10 hours and 30 °C for 3 hours during the 16-hour day. Transfer from the high-temperature greenhouse to a 21 °C greenhouse increased axillary bud viability from 0% to 95%. Axillary buds of leaves not yet unfolded were sensitive to high temperatures, whereas those of unfolded leaves (i.e., fully developed correlatively inhibited buds) were not. Sixteen consecutive days in the high-temperature treatment were required for axillary bud development of `Eckespoint Red Sails' to be inhibited.

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Paul R. Fisher and Royal D. Heins

A methodology based on process-control approaches used in industrial production is introduced to control the height of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima L.). Graphical control charts of actual vs. target process data are intuitive and easy to use, rapidly identify trends, and provide a guideline to growers. Target reference values in the poinsettia height control chart accommodate the biological and industrial constraints of a stemelongation model and market specifications, respectively. A control algorithm (proportional-derivative control) provides a link between the control chart and a knowledge-based or expert computer system. A knowledge-based system can be used to encapsulate research information and production expertise and provide management recommendations to growers.

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Keith A. Funnell and Royal D. Heins

The postharvest quality of potted Asiflorum lily `Donau' (Lilium hybrid) was evaluated after plants were sprayed with 0, 50, 250, or 500 mg·L-1 (BA equivalent) of Promalin (GA4+7 to BA ratio was 1:1) or Accel (GA4+7 to BA ratio 1:10) and stored at 2 to 3 °C for 0, 10, or 20 days. As storage was prolonged, more leaves senesced once plants were removed for evaluation. Leaf senescence declined with increasing concentrations of either Promalin or Accel, but Promalin was more effective. Application of 250 mg·L-1 Promalin completely eliminated leaf senescence over the 20-day shelf-life evaluation period, irrespective of duration of cold storage. The treatments did not affect flower bud opening or plant height. Chemical names used: gibberellin (GA4+7); benzyladenine (BA).

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Jens J. Brøndum and Royal D. Heins

Effects of temperature and photoperiod on growth rates and morphological development of Dahlia pinnata Cav. `Royal Dahlietta Yellow' were determined by growing plants under 45 combinations of day and night temperatures (DT and NT, respectively, and photoperiod. DT and NT ranged from 10 to 30C and photoperiods from 10 to 24 hours·day-1. Photoperiod influenced vegetative development more than reproductive development as plants flowered in all photoperiods. Lateral shoot count and length decreased and tuberous root weight increased as photoperiod decreased from 16 to 10 hours. Temperature interacted with photoperiod to greatly increase tuberous root formation as temperature decreased from 25 to 15C. Increasing temperature from 20 to 30C increased the number of nodes below the first flower. Flower count and diameter decreased as average daily temperature increased. Nonlinear regression analysis was used to estimate the maximum rate and the minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures for leaf-pair unfolding rate (0.29 leaf pair/day, 5.5, 24.6, and 34.9C, respectively), flower development rate from pinch to visible bud (0.07 flower/day, 2.4, 22.4, and 31.1C, respectively), and flower development rate from visible bud to flower (0.054 flowers/day, 5.2, 24.4, and 31.1C, respectively). The results collectively indicate a relatively narrow set of conditions for optimal `Royal Dahlietta Yellow' dahlia flowering, with optimal defined as fast-developing plants with many large flower buds and satisfactory plant height. These conditions were a 12- to 14-hour photoperiod and ≈ 20C.

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James E. Faust and Royal D. Heins

Leaf unfolding rate (LUR) was determined for `Utah' African violet plants grown in growth chambers under 20 combinations of temperature and photosynthetic photon flus (PPF). A nonlinear model was used to predict LUR as a function of shoot temperature and daily integrated PPF. The maximum predicted LUR was 0.27 leaves/day, which occurred at 25C and a daily integrated PPF of 10 mol/m2 per day. The optimum temperature for leaf unfolding decreased to 23C, and the maximum rate decreased to 0.18 leaves/day as the daily integrated PPF decreased from 10 to 1 mol/m2 per day. A greenhouse experiment using 12 combinations of air temperature and daily integrated PPF was conducted to validate the LUR model. Plant temperatures used in the model predicted leaf development more accurately than did air temperatures, but using average hourly temperature data was no more accurate than using average daily temperature data.

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John E. Erwin and Royal D. Heins

Day (DT) and night temperatures (NT) influenced Lilium longiflorum Thunb. `Nellie White' stem elongation and development rate from the visible bud stage (VB) until anthesis. Plant height increase after VB was a function of the difference (DIF) between DT and NT (DT-NT). Plant height increased 90% as DIF increased from - 16 to 16C. A cubic model described bud development rate as a function of temperature from 14 to 30C. A linear model adequately described bud development rate as a function of average daily temperature from 14 to 21C. Based on the linear model, bud development rate increased 0.05 per day for each 1C increase in average daily temperature. The base temperature for bud development, i.e., the temperature at which bud development rate was 0, was calculated as 3.5C.

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James E. Faust, Hiroshi Shimizu, and Royal D. Heins

Surface temperature of a soilless medium in white, gray, and black plug sheets was measured to determine the value of using plug sheets of different colors to control soil temperature during seed germination and young seedling growth. Plugs sheets were placed in a greenhouse set at 25°C. Soil surface temperatures were measured with fine-wire thermocouples inserted into the top 1 mm of the soil. A thermal image analyzer was used to determine the temperature variation across the plug flat. At night, soil temperature in all three colored flats was 3°C below air temperature because of evaporation and net longwave radiative losses to the greenhouse glass. Surface temperature of moist soil increased as solar radiation increased. Soil surface temperature in the white sheet was 6.3 and 10°C warmer than the air under solar radiation conditions of 350 and 700 W ·m-2 (about 700 and 1400 μmol·m-2·s-1), which was 3 and 2°C cooler than soil the black and gray plug sheets, respectively. These data indicate plug sheet color influences soil surface temperature, but not as much as solar radiation does. Preventing high solar radiation during the summer is more critical than plug sheet color.