Three experiments were undertaken to evaluate the effects of different preharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) spray treatments on apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit maturity at harvest and quality after long-term storage in a regular atmosphere or controlled atmosphere (CA). Trees were sprayed within 7 days of the anticipated harvest date (H) and fruit for long-term storage were sampled at either H in the case of ‘Law Rome’ or at harvest dates that were delayed by up to 21 days (H + 21) in the case of ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Law Rome’. Preharvest 1-MCP sprays within 7 days of H reduced fruit drop, internal ethylene concentration, and starch index and reduced firmness loss during long-term storage of fruit at delayed harvest dates but had only minor effects on fruit maturity at H. Preharvest 1-MCP sprays reduced the incidence of superficial scald on ‘Law Rome’ apples more effectively than either diphenylamine or CA storage. Application of 1-MCP within 7 days of H may be used to delay harvest date, thereby allowing continued fruit growth without a concomitant advance in fruit maturity and to reduce firmness loss and superficial scald during long-term storage both for normal and delayed harvests.
Steve J. McArtney, John D. Obermiller, James R. Schupp, Michael L. Parker, and Todd B. Edgington
James R. Schupp, H. Edwin Winzeler, Thomas M. Kon, Richard P. Marini, Tara A. Baugher, Lynn F. Kime, and Melanie A. Schupp
Pruning is the cutting away of vegetation from plants for horticultural purposes. Pruning is known to reduce apple tree size, increase fruit size and quality, and decrease yield. Methods for studying the effects of varying degrees of severity of pruning on a whole-tree basis have used qualitative descriptions of treatments rather than repeatable whole-tree quantitative metrics. In this study, we introduce a pruning severity index calculated from the sum of the cross-sectional area of all branches on a tree at 2.5 cm from their union to the central leader divided by the cross-sectional area of its central leader at 30 cm from the graft union. This limb to trunk ratio (LTR) was then modified by successively removing the largest branches of ‘Buckeye Gala’ to achieve six severity levels ranging from LTR 0.5 to LTR 1.75, with lower values representing more extreme pruning with less whole-tree limb area relative to trunk area. Pruning treatments were applied for three consecutive years and tree growth and cropping responses were observed for the first 2 years. With increasing pruning severity the following characteristics increased after seasonal growth: number of renewal limbs, number of shoots, shoot length, number of shoot leaves, shoot leaf area, final fruit set, fruit size, yield of large fruit, crop value from large fruit, soluble solids, and titratable acidity. The following characteristics decreased: limb age, number of secondary limbs, number of spurs, number of spur leaves, spur leaf area, the ratio of spur leaf area to shoot leaf area, fruit count per tree, yield, yield efficiency, crop value from small fruit, overall crop value, and sugar:acid ratio. The LTR provides a measurable way to define and create different levels of pruning severity and achieve consistent outcomes. This allows a greater degree of accuracy and precision to dormant pruning of tall spindle apple trees. The use of the LTR to establish the level of pruning severity allows the orchard manager to set crop load potential through regulation of the canopy bearing surface. This metric is also a necessary step in the development of autonomous pruning systems.