A new problem of macadamia trees (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche) in Hawaii is characterized by slight leaf chlorosis, followed by rapid leaf browning, and tree death. Ambrosia beetle [Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff and X. perforans Wollastan (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)] infestations and fungal fruiting bodies were present on trees that subsequently exhibited the decline pattern. `Ikaika' was the most susceptible cultivar, and tree death occurred 8.3 ± 2.6Sd months after beetle infestations were detected.
David H. Oil, Gary Ueunten, Alan Yamaguchi, Mike A. Nagao, Arnold H. Hara, and Wayne T. Nishijima
Arnold H. Hara, Trent Y. Hata, Victoria L. Tenbrink, Benjamin K.S. Hu, and Mike A. Nagao
Postharvest treatments significantly reduced or eradicated pests on various tropical cut flowers and foliage. Immersion in water at 49° C for 10 minutes killed armored scales on bird of paradise leaves, Strelitzia reginae Banks, as well as aphids and mealybugs on red ginger, Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) K. Schum. Vapor heat treatment for 2 hours at 45.2° C provided quarantine security against armored scales on bird of paradise leaves. A 5 minute dip in fluvalinate combined with insecticidal soap eliminated aphids and significantly reduced mealybugs on red ginger. A 3 minute dip in fluvalinate, a 3 minute dip in chlorpyrifos, or a 3 hour fog with avermectin-B significantly reduced thrips on orchids, Dendrobium spp., without injury to the flowers. No postharvest treatment was both effective and nonphytotoxic on all commodities.
Trent Y. Hata, Arnold H. Hara, Mike A. Nagao, and Benjamin K.S. Hu
Frangipani (Plumeria hybrid `Donald Angus') cuttings immersed in hot water (49C for 10 min) followed by 0.8% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) basal treatment (hot water + IBA) had greater root length and weight compared to the nontreated control, hot water, or IBA treatment alone. Greater percentage of rooting and number of roots per cutting were observed for hot-water-treated + IBA-treated cuttings compared to the non-treated control and hot-water treatment alone. In a second study, Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker-Gawl. `Massangeana', D. deremensis Engl. `Warneckii', D. deremensis Engl. `Janet Craig', D. marginata Lam., and cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) cuttings displayed results similar to those observed with Plumeria cuttings. In addition to enhancing rooting, hot water + IBA also stimulated the number of shoots per cutting on anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Andre `Marian Seefurth'), croton [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume var. pictum (Lodd.) Mull. Arg.], D. marginata, D. fragrans, Plumeria, and ti (Cordyline terminalis `Ti') cuttings.