Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 40 items for

  • Author or Editor: L.E. William x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

J. Kim Pittcock, Richard E. Durham, Roy E. Mitchell, William L. Lipe, and Timothy E. Elkner

Texas Tech Univ., in collaboration with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Lubbock, maintains a research vineyard at Brownfield. Texas. Thirty-one wine-grape varieties are being evaluated for performance on the Texas High Plains. The vines were planted on their own roots in a completely randomized design with four replications and two plants per replication. The average rainfall, including supplemental irrigation, was ≈550 mm/year. Sufficient data exist for comparison of 18 varieties during the 1992–1994 seasons, following a severe freeze in Nov. 1991. The vines were trained to a horizontal bilateral cordon and spurpruned with two buds per spur and 10 to 12 spurs per vine. Pruning weights were taken from the surviving vines during the 1993–1995 dormant seasons. Pruning weights were used as a direct estimate for plant vigor. The varieties exhibiting lowest vigor included `Carmine', `Pinot Blanc', `Pinot Noir', and `Ruby Cabernet', while those exhibiting highest vigor included `Semillion', `Chenin Blanc', `Muscat Canelli', and `French Columbard'.

Free access

Rebecca L. Turk, Helen T. Kraus, Ted E. Bilderback, William F. Hunt, and William C. Fonteno

Twelve rain gardens were constructed to analyze the effectiveness of three different filter bed substrates to support plant growth and remove nutrients from urban stormwater runoff. The filter bed substrates included a sand-based substrate (sand) composed of (v/v/v) of 80% washed sand, 15% clay and silt fines, and 5% pine bark; a soil-based substrate (soil) composed of (v/v) 50% sandy loam soil and 50% pine bark; and a slate-based substrate (slate) composed of (v/v) 80% expanded slate and 20% pine bark. Coarse particles (6.3 to 2.0 mm) in the soil-based substrate created a large-pore network that conducted stormwater more quickly into and through the rain garden than slate or sand as evidenced by the high infiltration and saturated hydraulic conductivity values. Sand had good overall retention of pollutants except nitrogen (N) possibly as a result of the very small percentage (5%) of organic matter and low cation exchange capacity (CEC). Soil had the lowest remediation of phosphorus (P) and highest concentration of P in its effluent and was similar in N removal efficiency to slate. Slate had the best retention of N and P. Overall, all three substrates functioned in reducing the quantity of pollutants in urban stormwater runoff; yet, the impact of substrate on remediation appeared to lessen by Season 2 because there were few differences between substrate in the effluent nutrient concentration. Substrate did not affect shoot or root growth. Eleven of the 16 species (B. nigra, B. ‘Duraheat’, M. virginiana, M. ‘Sweet Thing’, I. virginica, I. ‘Henry’s Garnet’, J. effusus, P. ‘Shenandoah’, H. angustifolius, H. ‘First Light’, and E. purpureum subsp. maculatum) grew well in the rain gardens and could be used as rain garden plants.

Free access

Kathleen G. Haynes, William E. Potts, Jesse L. Chittams, and Diane L. Fleck

For the yellow-flesh fresh market, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties with intense yellow flesh are desired. Twenty-five yellow-flesh clones, including 24 U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) selections and the check variety `Yukon Gold', were evaluated for tuber yellow-flesh color, as measured by a reflectance colorimeter, and for individual tuber weight in replicated field trials in Presque Isle, Maine, in 1991 and 1992. There were significant differences among clones for yellow-flesh intensity. Yellow-flesh intensity in two USDA selections was significantly less than in `Yukon Gold'. In four USDA selections, yellow-flesh intensity was significantly greater than in `Yukon Gold'. In general, there was an inverse relationship between tuber weight and yellow-flesh intensity. Subsamples of tubers whose weight fell between the 10 to 90, 25 to 75, 35 to 65, and 40 to 60 percentile were compared to the full sample. There was good agreement between the 10 to 90 and 25 to 75 percentile subsample and the full sample regarding the average yellow-flesh intensity and in the consistency of pairwise comparisons between individual selections and `Yukon Gold'. For determining yellow-flesh intensity, the 25 to 75 percentile subsample was as informative as the full sample.

Free access

Nawab Ali, Robert M. Skirvin, Walter E. Splittstoesser, David E. Harry, and William L. George

Seed lots with the genetic background of `Baroda' and `Marketer' cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) containing all possible combinations (DF Df, Dfdf, dfdf) of df (which increases dormancy) and Df (wild type) were used. Dormancy was not solely due to the genotype dfdf and clear effects of genetic background were apparent. The df allele in the homozygous state induced a strong dormancy in `Baroda', but the Df gene could not restore normal germination. However, Df did reduce the dormancy period to 85 days. In `Marketer', df did not delay germination. Any treatment (puncturing, removal, cutting) that damaged the inner integument allowed `Baroda' dfdf to germinate, indicating an intact integument was essential for maintaining dormancy in this cultivar. All `Baroda' dfdf embryonic axes without the cotyledons germinated in 5 days. `Baroda' dfdf seeds with intact integuments imbibed adequate water to germinate but remained dormant, suggesting that the effect of the integument on dormancy was not related to imbibition.

Free access

William M. Randle, Jane E. Lancaster, Martin L. Shaw, Kevin H. Sutton, Rob L. Hay, and Mark L. Bussard

Three onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars were grown to maturity at five S fertility levels and analyzed for S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) flavor precursors, γ-glutamyl peptide (γ-GP) intermediates, bulb S, pyruvic acid, and soluble solids content. ACSO concentration and composition changed with S fertility, and the response was cultivar dependent. At S treatments that induced S deficiency symptoms during active bulbing, (+)S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was the dominant flavor precursor, and the flavor pathway was a strong sink for available S. As S fertility increased to luxuriant levels, trans(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) became the dominant ACSO. (+)S-propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was found in low concentration relative to total ACSO at all S fertility treatments. With low S fertility, S rapidly was metabolized and low γ-GP concentrations were detected. As S fertility increased, γ-GP increased, especially γ-L-glutamyl-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide, the penultimate compound leading to ACSO synthesis. Nearly 95% of the total bulb S could be accounted for in the measured S compounds at low S fertility. However, at the highest S treatment, only 40 % of the total bulb S could be attributed to the ACSO and γ-GP, indicating that other S compounds were significant S reservoirs in onions. Concentrations of enzymatically produced pyruvic acid (EPY) were most closely related to PRENCSO concentrations. Understanding the dynamics of flavor accumulation in onion and other vegetable Alliums will become increasing important as the food and phytomedicinal industries move toward greater product standardization and characterization.

Free access

Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen, Frank B. Matta, Juan L. Silva, and William E. Holmes

The volatiles of longon (Lansium domesticum Corr. var Dongon), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. var Native), durian (Durio zibethinus L. var Monthong), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. var Rong-rien), and sapodilla (Manilkara zapota van Royer var Kai) were identified by headspace-solid phase microextraction with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The headspace volatiles of fresh, unheated, salted out with NaCl, and NaCl + heated samples were determined. Salting out gave the highest number of volatile components with the longon headspace. High temperature did not have much affect on the amount of volatiles in the headspace. Major volatiles of the total 43 volatiles in longon were 1,3,5 trioxane, (E)-2-hexenal, 3-carene, α-cubebene, isoledene, δ-selinene, and α-calacorene. Major volatiles of mangosteen were 2, 2-dimethyl-4-octanal, E-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, hexyl–n-valerate, 1,4-pentadiene, and 2-methyl-1, 3-buten-2-ol. Volatile compounds in durian consisted of a large number of sulfur-containing compounds, which included diethyltrisulfide, diethyldisulfide, dithiolane, dimetyl sulfide, and 3-methyl-thiozolidine. Nonsulfur compounds 2-methyl butanoate, butanedioic acid, and propyl-2-ethylbutanoate were also abundant. Isocitonellol, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, pentanal, and 4-tridecyl valerate were most abundant in ‘Rong-rien’ rambutan. A total of 23 components were characterized in sapodilla with ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, and 2-butenyl benzene being the major volatiles.

Free access

Robert J. Portillo, Carl E. Sams, William S. Conway, Jimmie L. Collins, and Marjorie P. Penfield

`Golden Delicious' (`GD') and `Red Rome' (`RR') apples were pressure infiltrated at harvest with 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4% and 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8% CaCl2 solutions (w/v), respectively. Sauce was prepared after 0, 2, 4 and 6 months in 0°C storage. Sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the effects of CaCl2 concentration on color, off-flavors, consistency, uniformity of particles, and overall acceptability of the sauce. Sauce from `RR' was lighter while sauce from `GD' was darker with increased CaCl2. Calcium chloride increased the consistency of `RR' and `GD' sauce but the highest concentrations decreased the consistency of `GD' sauce. The uniformity of sauce particles from both cultivars decreased with increased CaCl2. The presence of off-flavors increased in `GD' sauce with the highest concentrations but decreased in `RR' sauce as CaCl2 was increased. Overall acceptability of sauce made from `RR' and `GD' increased as CaCl2 increased, however, acceptability of sauce made from `GD' decreased at the highest concentrations of CaCl2.

Free access

Robert J. Porting, Carl E. Sams, William S. Conway, Jimmie L. Collins, and Marjorie P. Penfield

`Golden Delicious' and `Red Rome' apples were pressure infiltrated (69 kPa for 2 or 4 min) at harvest with 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4%, and 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8% CaCl2 solutions (w/v), respectively, and placed in 0°C storage. Juice was extracted from the apples after 0, 2, 4 or 6 months in storage. Sensory evaluation of the juice was conducted to determine if CaCl2 concentration affected color, off-flavors, suspended particles or overall acceptability of the juice. Juice color was judged lighter with increased CaCl2 in both cultivars. Detection of off-flavors decreased as CaCl2 was increased in juice from `Red Rome'; whereas, off-flavors increased as CaCl2 was increased in `Golden Delicious' juice. CaCl2 treatments decreased suspended particles in both cultivars. As CaCl2 was increased overall acceptability of juice from `Red Rome' increased, while acceptability of juice from `Golden Delicious' decreased.

Free access

Robert J. Porting, Carl E. Sams, William S. Conway, Jimmie L. Collins, and Marjorie P. Penfield

`Golden Delicious' and `Red Rome' apples were pressure infiltrated (69 kPa for 2 or 4 min) at harvest with 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4%, and 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8% CaCl2 solutions (w/v), respectively, and placed in 0°C storage. Juice was extracted from the apples after 0, 2, 4 or 6 months in storage. Sensory evaluation of the juice was conducted to determine if CaCl2 concentration affected color, off-flavors, suspended particles or overall acceptability of the juice. Juice color was judged lighter with increased CaCl2 in both cultivars. Detection of off-flavors decreased as CaCl2 was increased in juice from `Red Rome'; whereas, off-flavors increased as CaCl2 was increased in `Golden Delicious' juice. CaCl2 treatments decreased suspended particles in both cultivars. As CaCl2 was increased overall acceptability of juice from `Red Rome' increased, while acceptability of juice from `Golden Delicious' decreased.

Free access

Kathryn Homa, William P. Barney, Daniel L. Ward, Christian A. Wyenandt, and James E. Simon

Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) is the most economically important culinary herb in the United States. In 2007, a new disease, basil downy mildew (BDM), caused by the oomycete pathogen Peronospora belbahrii, was introduced into the United States and has since caused significant losses in commercial basil production. Although no commercial sweet basils available are resistant to P. belbahrii, other species of Ocimum have exhibited potential tolerance, resistance, or both. The objectives of this work were to determine if leaf morphological characteristics including stomata density and leaf curvature correlated with infection of plants by P. belbahrii, and thus could be used as selected characters in plant breeding. In 2011, 20 Ocimum cultivars including sweet (O. basilicum), cinnamon (O. basilicum), clove (O. basilicum), citrus (Ocimum ×africanum syn. Ocimum citriodorum), spice (Ocimum americanum syn. Ocimum canum), and holy basils (Ocimum tenuiflorum syn. Ocimum sanctum) were evaluated for susceptibility to downy mildew. Sweet basils were determined to be the most susceptible; cinnamon, clove, and Thai types were moderately susceptible; and citrus, spice, and holy types were least susceptible to downy mildew. Using those same 20 Ocimum species and cultivars, stomata length and density and leaf curvature were measured and correlated with downy mildew incidence and severity. In general, basil species with higher stomatal densities had higher downy mildew incidence and severity. High stomatal densities were mainly found in the sweet, cinnamon, and clove basils. Citrus and spice species with longer stomatal lengths generally exhibited lower downy mildew incidence. Holy basil, the least susceptible of all Ocimum sp. to P. belbahrii evaluated in this study, had the greatest stomatal density and shortest stomatal length. Some sweet basil cultivars with the highest downy mildew incidence also had the greatest downward leaf curvature, whereas other sweet basil cultivars with moderate downy mildew incidence had leaves that were nearly flat or curved upward. Holy, citrus, and spice basils with low downy mildew incidence had leaves that were nearly flat or curved upward. This study suggests that leaf curvature and stomatal density and length affect downy mildew development and sporulation. Considerations of these leaf morphological characteristics may be useful phenotypic traits in breeding for downy mildew resistance in Ocimum.