Ninety trees are being used and have been in the field since 1994. The three species studied include: Fraxinus pennsylvanica Patmore (Green Ash), Quercus macrocarpa (Bur Oak), and Pinus nigra (Austrian Pine); 30 of each species. Each species has been harvested in three different nursery production methods including balled and burlapped, plastic container, and fabric container. During the 1996 growing season, the following data was recorded for each tree, growth increments, caliper size, and tree heights. For the two deciduous species, both dry weights and leaf area were recorded. Some sap flow measurements were taken using a non-intrusive stem heat balance method, on the same tree species with varying production methods. All three species showed the greatest growth increments and heights for those trees planted in fabric containers. In regards to trunk caliper size, Pinus nigra showed that the balled and burlapped, and fabric containers had larger calipers than those planted in plastic containers. Fabric container trees were larger in caliper than plastic container trees, which was larger than the balled and burlapped on Quercus macrocarpa. The plastic container and balled and burlapped resulted in greater calipers on Fraxinus pennsylvanica than the fabric containers. Quercus macrocarpa also showed that both leaf area and dry weight were greatest for trees planted in fabric containers, followed by the other production methods. Trees in plastic containers exhibited the greatest leaf area and dry weight for Fraxinus pennsylvanica. Overall, the fabric container trees in all three species illustrated the highest-quality trees, followed by those planted in plastic containers, and then balled and burlapped. Minimal data was recorded for transpiration rates in 1996 and will be further investigated in 1997.
Amy Jo Waldo and James E. Klett
Scott W. Dunn and James E. Klett
Perennials grown in 5.7-cm containers received two root treatments (mechanical root-pruned and non-pruned) prior to field planting. During the 1996 season, the two root treatments and five irrigation treatments, (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) ET0 (reference crop evapotranspiration), were tested on Delosperma cooperii, Delosperma nubigenum, Polygonum affine, and Veronica liwanensis and evaluated on the basis of plant growth and visual ratings. No significant change in height occurred in any species for both root or irrigation treatments. No significant change in width or density occurred in D. cooperii, from root treatment; however irrigation treatments below 50% resulted in a significant decrease in width. Significant deceases in width also occurred in all species from irrigation treatments. Mechanically root-pruned plants resulted in a significant decrease in density of D. nubigenum, P. affine, and V. liwanensis and a decrease in width in P. affine.
Scott G. Reeves and James E. Klett
Three commonly used nursery media were packed into 10×40 cm long PVC plastic columns. Two treatments of aqueous applied napropamide [2-(αnapthoxy)-N,N diethyl propionamide] were used including: 1) 13.44 kg/ha, 2) 20.16 kg/ha. Two water treatments were applied to the columns: 1) 2.54 cm/.405 ha, 2) 5.08 cm/.405 ha. Leachate from the columns was collected every three days for a period of two weeks. Quantitative bioassay testing using a napropamide sensitive plant species Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) have indicated a downward linear trend in the growth of roots and shoots when exposed to increasing concentrations of napropamide in controlled petri dish experiments. Preliminary leachate studies indicate that napropamide concentrations in the leachate collected are below levels detectable by the barley bioassay (< .25 ppm) at the label recommended rate of 6.72 kg/ha. Gas chromatography studies will be conducted to confirm napropamide concentrations in the collected leachate.
James E. Klett, Laurel Potts, and David Staats
During the 1998 season, preemergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oryzalin (Surflan 40AS), 0.36 and 0.72 kg a.i./ha; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 0.54 and 2.16 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scott's OH II), 0.54 and 1.09 kg a.i./ha; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha. Herbicides were applied to Phalaris arundinacea `Picta', Scabiosa caucasica, Sedum × `Autumn Joy', Pennisetum setaceum `Rubrum', Salvia argentea, Penstemon × mexicali `Red Rocks', Osteospermum barberiae v. compactum `Purple Mountain', and Gazania linearis `Colorado Gold'. Phytotoxicity symptoms (visual defects) were apparent with Napropamide on Phalaris (at both rates) but recovered by the end of season. All herbicides provided good weed control.
James Klett*, Dave Staats, and Matt Rogoyski
During the 2003 season, preemergence herbicide was applied to twelve container grown herbaceous perennials and woody plants and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicide and rates were: Flumioxazin (Broadstar) 113.5 g (label rate), 227 g and 454 g a.i./A. Herbicides were applied to Buxus microphylla `Winter Gem', Cytisus purgans `Spanish Gold', Festuca ovina glauca `Elijah Blue', Hakonechloa macra `Aureola', Lonicera tatarica `Arnold Red', Pachysandra terminalis `Green Sheen', Hydrangea arborescens `Annabelle', Mahonia aquifolium, Phalaris arundinacea `Picta', Carex buchananii, Cerastium tomentosum, and Achillea millefolium `Red Beauty'. Weed control was excellent at all rates and controlled at least 99% of all weeds. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on Mahonia, Buxus, Cytisus, Festuca, Hakonechloa, Pachysandra or Phlaris. Phytotoxicity resulted on some of the other plants. Carex had smaller plants (dry weights) at all rates. Cerastium had severe phytotoxicty at the 227 g and 454 g rates and moderate stunting at the recommended label rate, 113.5 g. Hydrangea became chlorotic and stunted at the 113.5 g rate and some fatal toxicity ocurred at the 227 g and 454 g rates. Phytotoxicity resulted on Lonicera at all rates and ranged from mild chlorosis in leaf veins (113.5 g rate) to plant death (454 g rate). Achillea at the 113.5 g rate only resulted in stunted plant growth while the 227 g and 454 g rates resulted in severe phytotoxcity and plant death.
James E. Klett, David Staats, and Matt Rogoyski
During the 2004 season, preemergence herbicide was applied to 12 container-grown herbaceous perennials and woody plants and evaluated for weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicide and rates were: pendimethalin (Pendulum 2G) 908 g (label rate), 1816 g, and 3632 g/acre a.i. Herbicides were applied to lady's mantle (Alchemilla mollis), purple rock cress (Aubretia species), blue wild indigo (Baptisia australis), pink pussytoes (Antennaria dioica var. rosea), common sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), redhot poker (Kniphofia uvaria), showy goldenrod (Solidago speciosa), heartleaf foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia), lavender (Lavendula angustifolia), blue flax (Linum perenne), catmint (Nepeta ×faassenii), and hen and chicks (Sempervivum tectorum). At 32 and 117 days after application, plants were evaluated for phytotoxicity. No phytotoxicity symptoms were apparent on any of the plants tested. Weed control was good in most cases with this herbicide but it did not control all weeds. Increasing the rates from 1× (label rate) did not significantly improve weed control.
Scott Dunn, David Staats, and James E. Klett
During the 1996 season, pre-emergent herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. The herbicides and rates were: Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oryzalin (Surflan 40AS), 0.36 and 0.72 kg a.i./ha; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 0.54 and 2.16 kg/ha; Oxyfluorfen + Pendimethalin (Scott's OH II),0.54 kg a.i./ha; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G), 0.72 and 1.44 kg a.i./ha. Herbicides were applied to Campanula carpatica, Dianthus gratianopolitanus, Gaillardia × `Baby Cole', Penstemon × `Husker's Red', and Phlox subulata `Emerald Blue'. Phytotoxicity symptoms (visual defects and less height) were apparent with Oryzalin on Penstemon (at both rates) and on Phlox (0.72 kg a.i./ha). Weed control was significantly less with Trifluralin and Napropamide when compared to the other herbicides.
Harrison G. Hughes and James E. Klett
The Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture offers majors in Horticulture with four concentrations (Floriculture, Horticultural Business Management, Horticultural Food Crops, and Horticultural Science) and Landscape Horticulture with three concentrations (Landscape Design and Construction, Nursery and Landscape Management, and Turf Management). A third major in Landscape Architecture is also offered. The department maintained the concentrations in past years of low enrollment by switching courses to alternate years, dropping nonmajor courses, and through hiring part-time staff. Currently, increasing enrollments, with limited additional funding and the need for broadened general requirements, increased career guidance, and capstone courses have increased pressures on consolidation of concentrations. Faculty have refocused senior courses to create capstone courses in several concentrations, moved the senior seminar to sophomore status for career enhancement, and are currently discussing other options.
James E. Klett, David Hillock, and David Staats
Herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. During the 1995 season six preemergent herbicides [(in kg·ha–1) Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 4.5 and 9.1; Isoxaben (Gallery 75DF), 1.1 and 2.3; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 4.5 and 9.1; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 3.4 and 13.6; Oryzalin (Surflan AS), 2.8 and 4.5; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G) 4.5 and 9.1, were tested on Callirhoe involucrata, Delosperma nubigenum, Dendranthemum ×morifolium `Jennifer', Festuca cinerea `Sea Urchin', and Gypsophila paniculata `Fairy's Pink'. Isoxaben (both rates) resulted in visual phytotoxicity symptoms and sometimes death to Dendranthemum. Oxadiazon (9.1 kg·ha–1) and Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (both rates) resulted in plant chlorosis and necrosis to Delosperma soon after herbicide application, but plants outgrew herbicide damage. Napropamide (both rates), applied to Delosperma, resulted in less dry weight when compared to some of the other herbicide treatments. Oryzalin (4.5 kg·ha–1) resulted in visual phytotoxicity and less plant dry weight to Festuca. Data analysis revealed no significant differences in Callirhoe and Gypsophila. In general, most herbicides controlled weeds effectively.
David Staats, David Hillock, and James E. Klett
Five preemergence herbicides were applied to seven herbaceous perennials to evaluate weed control efficacy and phytotoxicity. Different species were used each year. The species used during 1992 were coneflower (Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. `Goldstrum'), common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L. `Excelsior'), Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum ×superbum Bergmans `Alaska'), Stokes's aster (Stokesia laevis Greene `Blue Danube'), and avens (Geum Quellyon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw'). The species used in 1993 were woolly yarrow (Achillea tomentosa L.) and woolly thyme (Thymus pseudolanuginosus Ronn.). The herbicides and rates were napropamide (Devrinol 10G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; metolachlor (Pennant 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; oxyfluorfen+oryzalin (Rout 3G) at 3 and 12 lb a.i./acre; trifluralin (Treflan 5G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre; and oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G) at 4 and 8 lb a.i./acre. Plants were grown in no. 1 containers and weed seeds were sown onto the substrate surface. Two control treatments, no herbicides but with weeds (weedy control), and no weeds or herbicides (weed-free control) also were evaluated. Weed control was effective and similar for all herbicides tested. Napropamide at 8 lb a.i./acre caused stunting in foxglove (20% to 45% less growth compared to weed-free control). Oxyfluorfen + oryzlain at 12 lb a.i./acre caused severe phytotoxicity (≈80% to 95% of plant injured) and stunted the growth (70% to 80% less growth, sometimes plant death) of woolly yarrow. Woolly thyme was stunted by all herbicides when applied at the recommended rates (42% to 97% less growth compared to control) except for oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen + oryzlain. Woolly thyme appeared to be more susceptible to phytotoxicity due to its less-vigorous growth habit and shallow, adventitious roots that were in contact with the herbicide.