Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is ranked among the top ten vegetables in terms of oxygen radical absorbance capacity due to its fruit's phenolic constituents. Several potential health promoting effects have been ascribed to plant phenolic phytochemicals. We report here a first evaluation of phenolic acid constituents in eggplant fruit from accessions in the USDA eggplant core subset. The core subset includes 101 accessions of the cultivated eggplant, S. melongena, and 14 accessions representing four related eggplant species, S. aethiopicum L., S. anguivi Lam., S. incanum L., and S. macrocarpon L. Significant differences in phenolic acid content and composition were evident among the five eggplant species and among genotypes within species. Fourteen compounds separated by HPLC, that were present in many but not all accessions, were identified or tentatively identified as hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives based on HPLC elution times, UV absorbance spectra, ES-—MS mass spectra, and in some cases proton NMR data. These phenolics were grouped into five classes: chlorogenic acid isomers, isochlorogenic acid isomers, hydroxycinnamic acid amide conjugates, unidentified caffeic acid conjugates, and acetylated chlorogenic acid isomers. Among S. melongena accessions, there was a nearly 20-fold range in total HCA content. Total HCA content in S. aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon was low relative to S. melongena. A S. anguivi accession had the highest HCA content among core subset accessions. Chlorogenic acid isomers ranged from 63.4% to 96% of total HCAs in most core accessions. Two atypical accessions, S. anguivi PI 319855 and S. incanum PI500922, exhibited strikingly different HCA conjugate profiles, which differed from those of all other core subset accessions by the presence of several unique phenolic compounds. Our findings on eggplant fruit phenolic content provide opportunities to improve eggplant fruit quality and nutritive value.
John R. Stommel and Bruce D. Whitaker
Gene E. Lester and Bruce D. Whitaker
Postharvest gamma-irradiation of melons at low dosage has been reported to extend shelf life. This study assessed how irradiation alters the structure and function of plasma membrane (PM) from hypodermal-mesocarp tissue. Administration of gamma rays (1 kGy at 0.017 kGy/min) to mature melon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit caused a 14% drop in H+-ATPase activity within 4 h. Total protein content did not differ in PM from non-irradiated (NIR) vs. irradiated (IR) fruits. Following storage (7 days at 7C then 3 days at 21C), H+-ATPase activity was ≈10% to 20% lower in PM from both groups of fruit, with no difference between the two. Total PM protein had declined by 34% and 49% in IR and NIR fruits, respectively. After irradiation, the phospholipid to protein ratio (PL:protein) was substantially higher in PM from IR fruit (0.67 vs. 0.58 in NIR). With storage, PL:protein dropped to 0.52 in NIR fruit PM, but changed little (0.65) in IR fruit PM. These results may indicate that irradiation stimulates PL synthesis or inhibits PL catabolism. Further analyses of PM lipid content and composition are underway.
Bruce D. Whitaker, Joshua D. Klein, and William S. Conway
Postharvest heat treatment of apples maintains fruit firmness and reduces decay during storage. Four days at 38C are beneficial, but 1 or 2 days are detrimental. The cellular basis of these effects may involve changes in cell wall and membrane lipid metabolism. Lipids from hypodermal tissue of `Golden Delicious' apples were analyzed after 0, 1, 2, or 4 days at 38C. Major lipids included phospholipids (PL), free sterols (FS), steryl glycosides (SG), and cerebrosides (CB). Galactolipids (GL) were minor components. PL content fell ?10% after 1 day at 38C, was unchanged after 2 days, and began to rise again after 4 days. PL class composition did not change with heating, but fatty-acid unsaturation declined throughout. FS and CB content and composition changed little, whereas SG content cropped by ≈20% over 4 days. GL fell ≈50% during 1 day at 38C, with no change at days 2 or 4. A burst of PL catabolism followed by recovery of synthesis may in part explain the different effects of 1-, 2-, or 4-day heat treatments. GL loss (in plastids) may be related to the effect of heat on fruit color (yellowing).
Steven W. Pechous, Bruce D. Whitaker*, and Christopher B. Watkins
Fruit of different apple cultivars vary widely in susceptibility to superficial scald. The genetic and biochemical factors involved in this variation are unknown. Conjugated trienol (CTol) oxidation products of alpha-farnesene have been linked with scald induction, and a high rate of farnesene synthesis in peel tissue of scald-prone apples early in storage is often associated with development of the disorder. Pre-storage treatment of apple fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) inhibits the early burst of farnesene production and prevents scald, suggesting that ethylene induces transcription of genes involved in farnesene synthesis. We recently cloned a gene from apple peel tissue, AFS1, which encodes alpha-farnesene synthase, the last enzyme in the farnesene biosynthetic pathway. In this study, expression of AFS1 was compared in scaldsusceptible Law Rome (LR) and scald-resistant Idared (IR) apples at harvest and over 20 weeks of storage at 0.5 C. AFS1 transcript levels were closely correlated with accumulation of farnesene and CTols. In fruit of both cultivars, a sharp increase in AFS1 mRNA during the first 4 to 8 weeks of storage preceded a proportional rise in farnesene and a subsequent increase in CTols. However, maximum levels of AFS1 transcript, farnesene, and CTols were, respectively, 2.5-, 4-, and 33-fold greater in LR than in IR apples. Treatment of fruit with 1-MCP at harvest suppressed the increases in AFS1 transcript and farnesene early in storage, but AFS1 expression and farnesene synthesis recovered in LR fruit after 20 weeks. Scald incidence in LR apples after 20 weeks at 0.5 °C plus 1 week at 20 °C averaged 86%, whereas IR fruit had no scald. 1-MCP treatment reduced scald incidence in LR to <1%.
Joshua D. Klein, William S. Conway, Bruce D. Whitaker, and Carl E. Sams
`Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were treated after harvest with heat (air at 38 °C for 4 days or 42 °C for 1 day) or 2% CaCl2 (w/v; applied as a dip or pressure-infiltrated) or a combination of the two and stored at 0 °C for ≤6 months. Decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. after inoculation to a depth of 2 mm with a conidial suspension virtually was eliminated in stored fruit heated at 38 °C, regardless of Ca treatment. Apples punctured to a depth of 0.5 mm (but not 2 mm) and inoculated with B. cinerea on removal from storage were almost completely protected from poststorage decay if they had previously been pressure-infiltrated with 2% CaCl2, regardless of the heat regime. Heating fruit at 42 °C and dipping in 2% CaCl2 were only partially effective in preventing decay from either pre- or poststorage inoculations. Fruit firmness was not related to resistance to decay.
Joshua D. Klein, William S. Conway, Bruce D. Whitaker, and Carl E. Sams
`Golden Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were treated postharvest with heat (38C/4 d or 42C/24 h) or 2% CaCl2 (applied as a dip or pressure-infiltrated) or a combination thereof and then stored. Decay caused by Botrytis cinerea was virtually eliminated in fruit heated at 38C after inoculation prior to storage, regardless of Ca treatment. Apples inoculated upon removal from storage were almost completely protected from decay if they had been previously pressure-infiltrated with Ca, regardless of heat regime. Heating at 42C or Ca dips were only partially effective in preventing decay. Pressure infiltration of Ca (regardless of heat regime) or heating at 38C (regardless of Ca treatment) resulted in firmer fruit (68 N) than Ca dips or heating at 42C (56 N), which were firmer than nontreated fruit (52 N).
Jinhe Bai, Xinhua Yin, Bruce D. Whitaker, Kristi Deschuytter, and Paul M. Chen
Superficial scald of ‘Anjou’ pears (Pyrus communis) usually develops after cold storage of ≥3 months. Ethoxyquin has been used to control scald commercially. However, only a small amount of fruit can be treated within 7 days after harvest as recommended, and sometimes ethoxyquin causes phytotoxicity. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) showed excellent scald control potential, with rapid and mass treatment feasible. However, fruit may lose normal ripening ability at a dosage of 1-MCP as low as 30 nL·L−1, whereas a dosage of ≤20 nL·L−1 is not enough to control scald. In this investigation, ‘Anjou’ pears treated with 25 nL·L−1 1-MCP immediately after harvest were stored at −1 °C for up to 5 months. After 1, 7, 30, or 60 days of cold storage, part of the fruit were treated with 1000 μL·L−1 ethoxyquin and the remainder was left untreated as nonethoxyquin controls. The incidence of superficial scald, the concentrations of α-farnesene and its conjugated triene (CT) oxidation products, and the ripening ability of fruit were measured after 3-, 4-, and 5-month storages. All fruit ripened properly within 7 days of shelf life at 20 °C regardless of treatment. 1-MCP treatment at harvest or ethoxyquin alone applied within 7 days adequately controlled scald for only 3 months. By contrast, 1-MCP + ethoxyquin controlled scald for 5 months, regardless of when ethoxyquin was applied from 1 to 60 days after the start of cold storage. Thus, a combination of 25 nL·L−1 1-MCP, which is easily applied and does not influence ripening ability, and a delayed application (up to 60 days) of 1000 μL·L−1 ethoxyquin, which is a low dosage that does not cause phytotoxicity on fruit, controlled scald sufficiently. Scald is linked with accumulation of CT oxidation products of α-farnesene. 1-MCP and ethoxyquin inhibited accumulation of CT in fruit peel by different mechanisms. 1-MCP inhibited the production by reducing α-farnesene synthesis and the oxidation to CT, whereas ethoxyquin worked by inhibiting the latter.