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The study of seed germination of medicinal plant species has received special attention from the scientific community due to the increased demand for these plants in the pharmacological industry, coupled with the need to make rational crops for the

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Seed germination of four Litchi chinensis Sonn. cultivars (`Deshi', `Kasba', `Purbi', and `Early Bedana') was studied under various conditions, viz. in soil beds exposed to sunlight or in shade, in sand beds exposed to sunlight or in shade, and on moist filter paper. Among all, shaded, humid sand at 35 ± 2C gave the highest germination. Delaying sowing seeds after removal from the fruit significantly reduced germination. Litchi seeds held in polyethylene bags up to 4 days at 37 ± 2C at 90% relative humidity delayed loss of seed viability. Germination was improved by ethephon in `Deshi' and `Early Bedana', by IBA in `Deshi' and `Purbi', and by 100 mm GA3 in all litchi cultivars. Cultivars responded differently to growth regulators, with `Deshi' responding significantly better than `Purbi', `Kasba', or `Early Bedana'. These studies point to the recalcitrant nature of litchi seeds. Chemical names used: gibberellic acid (GA3); indole butyric acid (IBA); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

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Sharma, 1987 ). Xia et al. (1990) found that litchi seeds germinated fully when harvested at 10 d before fruit maturity or at fruit ripening time, but entirely lost seed viability after 6 d of natural drying. Ray and Sharma (1987) pointed out that

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, 1977 ). There is a considerable variety of methods that can be used for dormancy-breaking and seed germination among different Prunus species ( Ellis et al., 1985 ; Finch-Savage et al., 2002 ; Grisez, 1974 ; Suszka, 1962 ). Cherries generally have

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Priming or presoaking seed of common carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis Chase) and centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides Munro. (Kunz)] increased germination percentage and decreased mean time of germination (MTG) at 20, 25, and 30 °C. The effect of presoaking and priming was dependent on grass species and temperature. The optimum seed germination temperature for both of these warm-season species was 30 °C. Maximum effect on common carpetgrass or centipedegrass seeds was achieved by priming in 2% KNO3; higher concentrations did not improve germination percentage or MTG, and 4% was in some cases detrimental. Germination was higher and MTG lower at 20 and 30 °C than at 15 °C. Presoaking common carpetgrass and centipedegrass seeds was the most efficient seed enhancement treatment for germination at 30 °C.

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identify factors affecting seed germination in I. latifolia and I. rotunda . We investigated the germination capacity of seeds and embryos of those species from fruits collected in different months. We also investigated the effect of the endosperm, testa

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pretest has been successful in other crops, such as sorghum ( Tiryaki and Andrews, 2001 ), and would allow quicker and more efficient selections to be made. The objectives of this study are to determine how temperature affects spinach seed germination and

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commercially available in Chile, Japan, Holland, the United States, and others ( Olate and Schiappacasse, 2013 ). The understanding of seed germination, growth, and development is important for breeding purposes and sexual propagation of these species as an

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on seed germination of this species and of Calandrinia sp. B. australis flowers naturally in spring to early summer from September to December, producing blue inflorescences on long slender stalks ( Carolin, 1992 ; Stanley and Ross, 1986 ). This

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For premium quality transplant production, it is critical to provide balanced and complete nutrition before and after seed germination. In organic production systems, nutrient management is complex and variable, unlike in inorganic production

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