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Desalegn D. Serba, Osman Gulsen, Bekele G. Abeyo, Keenan L. Amundsen, Donald J. Lee, P. Stephen Baenziger, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss, Kent M. Eskridge, and Robert C. Shearman

, the potential amount of buffalograss improvement for turfgrass quality, pest resistance, and stress tolerance that may be achieved through hybridization has not been established. It is essentially impossible to generate inbred buffalograss lines by

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Subhrajit K. Saha, Laurie E. Trenholm, and J. Bryan Unruh

quality, little information is available on effects of turfgrass fertilizer formulations on ornamental plants or the effects of ornamental fertilizer formulations on turfgrass. In a nutrient management study comparing St. Augustinegrass and a mixed

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Gregory E. Bell, Dennis L. Martin, Kyungjoon Koh, and Holly R. Han

proficiency in turfgrass quality evaluation. Recently, optical sensing techniques have been introduced that measure the reflectance from turf canopies to determine turfgrass growth ( Bell et al., 2004 ), wear tolerance ( Trenholm et al., 1999a , 1999b

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Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm, and Jerry B. Sartain

of this review were to 1) summarize the major fertilizer sources and specific fertilizer management practices that can affect N and P cycling and exports from turfgrass and vegetated landscapes in urban watersheds, 2) discuss water quality impacts

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Ugur Bilgili, F. Olcay Topac-Sagban, Irfan Surer, Nejla Caliskan, Pervin Uzun, and Esvet Acikgoz

that turf quality increases with an increase in the timing and rate of composted sludge amendments during sod establishment ( Angle et al., 1981 ). The observed increase in turfgrass quality was attributed to the presence of sufficient amounts of

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Cécile Bertin, Andy F. Senesac, Frank S. Rossi, Antonio DiTommaso, and Leslie A. Weston

objectives of this study, therefore, were to evaluate turfgrass quality and weed suppressive ability of fine-leaf fescue cultivars over a 3-year period. Based on initial evaluations, a subset of fine-leaf fescue cultivars was further evaluated in additional

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S.R. Mueller and W.R. Kussow

Immature sand matrix golf putting greens are considered to be inhospitable environments for microorganisms as compared to native soils. Subsequently, turfgrass quality may suffer in the absence of beneficial microbe–plant interactions. The turfgrass industry has responded by marketing a wide array of biostimulant products that claim to improve putting green quality through influences on soil microbial activity. A field study was conducted to determine what influences five commercial biostimulants have on the root-zone microbial community and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) quality. A three year old U.S. Golf Association (USGA) specification sand-based putting green (e.g., 80% sand: 20% peat humus by volume) was the test site. Commercially available biostimulants and fertilizer were applied biweekly from May until August 2000. The soil microbial community was characterized using soil enzymes and substrate utilization profiles. Turfgrass quality was determined visually by evaluating color, percentage of localized dry spot (LDS), and overall uniformity. Nutrient uptake levels were monitored to ascertain if increases in quality related to plant health. Visual quality of the putting green was significantly improved (p < 0.05) by the commercial biostimulants. The positive response to biostimulants was not of a nutritional origin. The biostimulants did not effectively alter the putting green microbial community in terms of enzyme activity or substrate utilization. However, a seasonal decline was detected in cellulase activity, which prevailed over any treatment effect, suggesting the root-zone microbial community responded to summer decline of bentgrass roots and concomitant decreases in quantities of root exudates. Visual improvements in putting green quality during the period of summer stress were primarily associated with the incidence of LDS. Visual LDS ratings were significantly reduced (less LDS) by applications of the biostimulants on each observation date (p < 0.05) and over the entire course of the experiment (p < 0.10). Surfactant properties of the biostimulants therefore appeared to play a major role in the improvements in putting green quality. This does not negate the fact that the seaweed extracts and humic acids in the biostimulants may have improved the heat and moisture stress tolerance of the bentgrass once the LDS formed.

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D.S. Gardner and J.A. Taylor

In 1992, a cultivar trial was initiated in Columbus, Ohio to evaluate differences in establishment and long-term performance of cultivars of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), creeping red fescue (F. rubra), chewings fescue (F. rubra ssp. fallax), hard fescue (F. brevipila), kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), rough bluegrass (P. trivialis), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) under low maintenance conditions in a shaded environment. Fertilizer and supplemental irrigation were applied until 1994 to establish the grasses, after which no supplemental irrigation, or pesticides were applied and fertilizer rates were reduced to 48.8 kg·ha-1 (1 lb/1000 ft2) of N per year. Percentage cover and overall quality data were collected in 2000 and compared with data collected in 1994. Initial establishment success does not appear to be a good predictor of long-term success of a cultivar in a shaded environment. There was some variability in cultivar performance under shade within a given turfgrass species. The tall fescue cultivars, as a group, had the highest overall quality and percentage cover under shade, followed by the fine fescues, kentucky bluegrass, rough bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass cultivars.

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Landon D. Bunderson, Paul G. Johnson, Kelly L. Kopp, and Adam Van Dyke

Evaluating aesthetic qualities of turfgrass can be difficult because quality is not measured quantitatively, but is measured subjectively by visual estimation ( Skogley and Sawyer, 1992 ). This human-based visual evaluation attempts to incorporate

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Bradley S. Sladek, Gerald M. Henry, and Dick L. Auld

in turfgrass aesthetic quality. Turfgrasses grown in shade may exhibit reduced leaf and stem width, increased leaf length and plant height, reduced shoot density, longer internodes, reduced tillering, and a more upright growth habit ( Beard, 1973