evaluate propargyl bromide against a diversity of soil-borne pests, 2) to determine propargyl bromide efficacy in three different geographical environments, and 3) to compare propargyl bromide with MBC, iodomethane, and metam sodium. Materials and
suppress soil-borne pests is known as biofumigation ( Matthiessen and Kirkegaard 2006 ). Biofumigation may inhibit emergence and growth of cash crops ( Ackroyd and Ngouajio 2011 ; Haramoto and Gallandt 2005 ). However, because many allelopathic chemicals
secondary metabolites that negatively affect plant pest populations) substitutes for commercial fumigants in controlling soil-borne pests (weeds, diseases, and nematodes) that affect the yield or quality of crops ( Al-Rehiayani and Hafez, 1998 ; Brown and
nonchemical technique for controlling weeds, nematodes, and several soil-borne diseases ( Katan, 1987 ; McGovern and McSorley, 1997 ; Stapleton, 2000 ). The increased temperature (45–55 °C) at a 5-cm soil depth under clear plastic films caused mortality of a
Sorribas, 2008 ). However, grafting in the United States has not yet reached its full potential as a control for soil-borne pathogens and nematodes. It has been estimated that 40 million grafted vegetable transplants are currently used in the United States
Intensive fruit, ornamental, and vegetable production systems in the United States and elsewhere in the world rely on preplant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pathogens, pests, and weeds. These include strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) and
Although roses have been propagated by grafting for more than a century, there has been relatively no concerted breeding effort to develop rootstocks (understocks) as has been done for rosaceous fruit crops. Selection of cultivars, both asexually and sexually propagated, that have been used for propagating roses has come about so far more by fortuitious circumstance than by design. A survey (1) of rootstocks used in rose propagation indicated that the largest number were derivatives of either the Caninae or the Synstylae tribes, with the Caninae being more prevalent in Europe and the Synstylae in the U.S. Also, the survey delineated those qualities desired as well as those in which the commonly-used rose root-stocks were deficient. Characteristics found lacking were root flexibility, a trait of importance to to all nurserymen packaging rose plants either for sale or shipment, tolerance to low soil temp, and resistance or tolerance to soil-borne pests such as nematodes.
Field studies were conducted in 1973 and 1974 to determine the effects of various reflective film mulches, vegetal barriers of millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) K. Schum), and soil- and foliar-applied pesticides on yields and control of the watermelon virus complex (WMV), insects, nematodes, and soil-borne pathogens affecting yellow summer squash (Cucurbita pepo var melopepo L. Alefi, ‘Dixie’). All film mulches used (aluminum; white and blue plastic; brown paper) significantly reduced WMV in both fruits and plants. The millet barrier caused a significant reduction in WMV infected plants. In 1974, the systemic insecticide, carbofuran (Furadan) and/or sprays of mineral oil, significantly reduced WMV in non-mulched plots. Brown paper mulch significantly increased infestation of pickleworms, Diaphania nitidalis (Stoll) and all mulches significantly reduced infestations of serpentine leafminers, Liriomyza munda Frick. Leafminers were also controlled with carbofuran. Film mulches had no significant effect on populations of plant-parasitic nematodes and plant-pathogenic fungi. Both groups of pests were controlled with DD-MENCS (a mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene, 1,3-dichloropropane, methylisothiocyanate), but not with carbofuran or sodium azide. Film mulch increased squash yield 70 to 610% over the unmulched control. Plants in non-fumigated plots covered with aluminum and white plastic mulches produced significantly greater yields than plants in plots covered with blue plastic and brown paper mulches. Soil pesticides significantly increased yields over the non-fumigated control, and, averaged across main plots, DD-MENCS = DD-MENCS + carbofuran > carbofuran + sodium azide > sodium azide = nontreated check. The effects of film mulch were greatest in the non-fumigated check. Conversely, the effects of soil fumigation were negligible under film mulch and one could be substituted for the other.
Pistachios are the single most-successful plant introduction to the United States in the 20th century. Part of this success is due to the alternative production practices that have made this crop more economical to grow. Controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) can produce 25% savings in irrigation water with no adverse effects. Reclaimed drainage water can be used for in-season irrigation up to 6 dS/m. Nitrogen applications can be adjusted for crop load and alternate bearing. Foliar sprays of boron, copper, and zinc can replace heavy ground applications to alleviated these micronutrient deficiencies. Some early season insect damage can be tolerated due to the tree's ability to compensate for the damage by filling a higher percentage of the remaining nuts, Maintaining a clean orchard floor can limit some insect pests. Mechanical pruning has been demonstrated to be cheaper and cause no loss in yield. Foliar fungal diseases can be partially controlled by limiting trajectory angle, frequency, and duration of irrigation or by using buried drip irrigation systems. Soil-borne fungal diseases and nematode damage are controlled by using resistant rootstocks.
Worldwide vegetable production valued at over $1 billion each year is threatened by phytophthora blight ( Lamour et al., 2012 ). This devastating disease is caused by P. capsici, a soil-borne oomycete pathogen that can infect a wide variety of