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Ahmad Hassan, Chen Qibing, Jiang Tao, Lv Bing-Yang, Li Nian, Shu Li, Li Yu Tng, Jun Zhuo Li, Shang Guan Ziyue, and Muhammad Sohaib Tahir

tasks according to the semantic differential method. N = 50; mean ± sd ; * P < 0.01, Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Discussion We investigated the stress-reducing effects of 15-min horticultural activity by analyzing the physiological and psychological

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Sin-Ae Park, Chorong Song, Ji-Young Choi, Ki-Cheol Son, and Yoshifumi Miyazaki

viewing foliage plants than when they were not ( P < 0.01; Fig. 7 ). Fig. 7. Comparisons of a modified semantic differential (SD) method under conditions of viewing foliage plants vs. no foliage plants. The SD method uses three pairs of adjectives on 13

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Seon-Ok Kim, Yun-Ah Oh, and Sin-Ae Park

that there were no statistically significant differences in the SDM according to the presence and absence of foliage plants (data not shown). Fig. 7. Results of modified semantic differential method (SDM), according to the presence and absence of

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Seon-Ok Kim, Ji-Eun Jeong, Yun-Ah Oh, Ha-Ram Kim, and Sin-Ae Park

activities ( Fig. 4B ), and the “being relaxed” item scores were significantly higher when performing horticultural and reading activities when compared with the other activities ( Fig. 4C ). Fig. 4. Comparisons of a semantic differential method (SDM) for

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Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe, John A. Biernbaum, and Kenneth L. Poff

Two surveys were conducted to assess consumer and professional chefs' perceptions of three edible-flower species. Our objectives were to determine opinions, preferences, and uses of Viola tricolor L. `Helen Mount' (viola), Borago officinalis L. (borage), and Tropaeolum majus L. `Jewel Mix' (nasturtium). Flowers were grown using certifiable organic methods and chosen to reflect a variety of flower tastes, textures, and appearances. We quantified three attributes (taste, fragrance, and visual appeal) with a total of seven semantic, differential scales adapted from a scaling authority. The attributes were rated as: visual—“appealing”, “desirable,” and “very interested in tasting”; fragrance—“appealing” and “pleasant”; and taste—“tasty” and “desirable”. Garden Day participants were self-selected to evaluate and taste flowers from a consumer perspective. When asked to rate the three species on visual appeal and desire, no less than 76% of consumers awarded all flowers an acceptable rating. We found similar results when consumers answered questions regarding the taste of two of the three species. Results from this study support our hypothesis that customers would rate edible flower attributes highly and would be likely to purchase and serve the three species tested. Members of the Michigan Chefs de Cuisine Association participated in a similar survey. At least 66% of these chefs rated the three visual attributes and two fragrance attributes of viola and nasturtium acceptable. Chefs' ratings of the fragrance of borage as “appealing” and “pleasant” were higher than those of consumers, but the ratings were still low, 21% and 25%, respectively. Unlike consumers, chefs' ratings of the taste of viola as “appealing” and “desirable” were low (29% and 36%, respectively). We found some minor differences in ratings when groups were compared, using demographic variables as a basis for segmentation, indicating a homogenous marketing strategy may be employed.

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Hyunju Jo, Susan Rodiek, Eijiro Fujii, Yoshifumi Miyazaki, Bum-Jin Park, and Seoung-Won Ann

reporting higher levels of that mood state. The direct impressions evoked by the fragrance were examined using semantic differential (SD) methods, which have been found to be a reliable and valid way to quantify subjective feelings about external stimuli

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Ji-Eun Jeong and Sin-Ae Park

cognitive functions such as memory, attention, and emotional processes were analyzed ( Banich et al., 2008 ; Miller and Cohen, 2001 ). The Semantic Differential Method (SDM) is a questionnaire developed by Osgood (1952 ) in which participants choose

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Brian A. Kahn and William G. McGlynn

samples under recessed fluorescent lighting in the same room in both 2001 and 2004. The sensory evaluation was designed as an affective test; panelists were asked to rate sensory attributes on a 5-point semantic differential scale. The attributes evaluated

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Laura A. Warner, Anil Kumar Chaudhary, and Sebastian Galindo-Gonzalez

practices is …), which was completed using six pairs of opposite words separated by 5-point semantic differential scales (good to bad; important to unimportant; wise to foolish; beneficial to harmful; positive to negative; necessary to unnecessary). The

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Seong-Hyun Park and Richard H. Mattson

-Y manual ( Spielberger, 1983 ). To measure patients' feelings in response to their hospital room, the modified EAS was used ( Rohles and Milliken, 1981 ). The EAS consists of 13 adjective pair semantic differential scales. The EAS has been used in previous