and nectarine genotypes, Clarksville, AR (2017). Harvest The peaches and nectarines were hand harvested in the morning (between 7:00 and 10:00 am ) on two harvest dates (27 June and 11 July 2017) at optimal ripeness (a slight softening at the suture
Molly Felts, Renee T. Threlfall, and Margaret L. Worthington
Sharon Dea, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Maria Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, and Elizabeth A. Baldwin
Maximum shelf life and best eating quality are extremely important attributes for successful commercialization of fresh-cut fruits, but both are greatly influenced by the initial ripeness stage of the fruit as well as by the cutting procedures
Eunkyung Lee, Steven A. Sargent, and Donald J. Huber
) reported that bruised locular tissue of tomato contained ≈15% less vitamin C content than nonbruised tomatoes. The stage of fruit ripeness at harvest is one of major factors influencing the susceptibility of commodity to mechanical injury; riper tomatoes
Chae Shin Lim, Seong Mo Kang, Jeoung Lai Cho, and Kenneth C. Gross
Temperature regulation is the most effective tool for extending the storage life of fresh commodities, including pepper. Pepper fruit are susceptible to chilling injury (CI) below 7 °C ( Paull, 1990 ) depending on cultivar and stage of ripeness
Chae Shin Lim, Seong Mo Kang, Jeoung Lai Cho, Kenneth C. Gross, and Allan B. Woolf
of respiration and ethylene production are dependent on stage of ripeness and cultivar. ‘Chooraehong’ hot peppers ( Gross et al., 1986 ) and ‘Maor’ bell peppers ( Lurie and Ben-Yehoshua, 1986 ) show a climacteric respiratory pattern during ripening
Jim Hancock, Pete Callow, Sedat Serçe, Eric Hanson, and Randy Beaudry
cultivars. Materials and methods Influence of fruit ripeness and CA on storage life of ‘Elliott’ fruit. Fully blue fruit were hand-harvested in 1999 from ‘Elliott’ bushes in which 30%, 60%, and 80% of the fruit were fully colored blue and in 2000 when 30
Judith A. Abbott, Henry A. Affeldt, and Louis A. Liljedahl
`Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) from five major U.S. production areas were tested after ≈3 months of commercial storage. Soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), Magness-Taylor (MT) firmness, and sonic transmission spectra were compared with ripeness (maturity in trade terminology) scores assigned by six U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)-licensed apple inspectors according to USDA Grades and Standards inspection procedures. USDA ripeness categories are defined by textural and flavor terms. Inspectors in this test used visual, manual, oral, and auditory sensations to make their judgments, but firmness was the paramount characteristic judged. SSC and TA did not correlate with inspectors' scores, MT, or sonic measurements and thus are not satisfactory indices of ripeness for stored apples. Sonic resonance functions correlated significantly with mean inspectors' scores and with MT firmness. Inspectors' scores correlated slightly better with MT firmness than with sonic terms. MT is destructive and site-specific; in contrast, sonic measurements are nondestructive and representative of the entire fruit.
Amots Hetzroni, Denys J. Charles, and James E. Simon
A nondestructive electronic sensory system (electronic sniffer) that responds to volatile gases emitted by fruit during ripening was developed. It is based upon a single semi-conductor gas sensor placed within a rigid plastic cup equipped with a gas inlet to flush the head between samples. This gas sensor reacts with the range of reductive gases such as the aromatic volatiles that are naturally emitted by the ripening melon fruit. The sensor cup is placed on the exterior of the fruit and the change in electrical conductivity is recorded. In 1994, we examined the electronic sniffer as a tool to nondestructively determine ripeness in `Superstar', `Mission', and `Makdimon' melons. Fruits were manually classified into five ripeness stages based on external appearance and slip stage. Melons were first sampled nondestructively for color, weight, size, and slip stage, and then subjected to the electronic sniffer. Then, fruit volatiles, flesh firmness, and total soluble solids were measured. The electronic sniffer was able to accurately classify melons into three ripeness classes: unripe, half-ripe, and ripe for `Superstar' and `Mission'. The sniffer was only able to separate ripe from over-ripe in `Makdimon', which is known to become over-ripe and deteriorate rapidly. Using the sniffer as a tool to nondestructively measure ripeness and its potential application in fruit quality will be discussed.
Yael Edan and James E. Simon
The spatial distribution patterns of five melon cultivars (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) were evaluated by measuring XY coordinates of ripe fruit locations in the field. Fruit ripeness distribution over time was also evaluated for three cultivars by measuring the number of ripe fruit, fruit mass, and location over time. Spatial distribution curves for distances between fruit clusters and individual fruit from cluster centroids varied between clusters and were derived for each cultivar from the best fit curves based on chi-square analysis from the two-dimensional spatial fruit distribution. These equations can be used for predicting actual fruit locations in the field. Ripeness distribution patterns indicated that, while the exact duration of the effective harvesting period is cultivar-dependent, the ripeness trend for each of the cultivars was similar. Spatial distribution patterns vary among melon cultivars and must be recognized in the design of automated harvesting systems.
Matthew R. Mattia and John W. Scott
. (2012) reported that ripe fruit of ‘Ailsa Craig’, a cultivar with green-shouldered fruit, had significantly higher SSC than did ‘Craigella’, an isogenic cultivar with uniform green ( u ) shoulders. These authors concluded that tomato breeders, in