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R.J. Griesbach and R.A. Waterworth

Recently, several new Calibrachoa La Llave & Lexarza cultivars have been developed with novel red and blue flowers. Most of the wild species of Calibrachoa have purple flowers. The difference in color between the red, blue, and purple flowers was not due to anthocyanin composition but to vacuolar pH. The pH of the red flowered cultivar was 4.8, while that of the blue flowered cultivar was 5.6. The wild purple flower species had an intermediate pH of 5.0. The difference in pH was genetically inherited.

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Fengfeng Du, Xiaojing Liu, Yajun Chang, Naiwei Li, Yuesheng Ding, and Dongrui Yao

. After years of selection from the progeny of interspecific hybrids, we obtained a cultivar, Nelumbo ‘Jiang Luopao’, with deep purple-red, double-layered flowers. Moreover, the deep purple-red staminal appendages are unique to the lotus germplasm. In

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Mingyue Bao, Minmin Liu, Qingxia Zhang, Tonglin Wang, Xia Sun, and Jinguang Xu

purplish red. Fig. 1. Flower and Royal Horticultural Society Color Chart (Royal Horticultural Society, London, UK) value of herbaceous peony. Pigments in the test samples. As shown in Fig. 2 , a deeper color in the white, pinkish white, pale purple

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Qianqian Shi, Long Li, Lin Zhou, and Yan Wang

investigated in individuals with purple–red (Pd) and yellow flowers (Pl) from a wild population in Yunnan Province, China, and the anatomy of morphology of petals, protoplast features, and pigment compositions were analyzed. Cell sap pH and metal ion contents

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Ninghang Wang, Chao Zhang, Sainan Bian, Pengjie Chang, Lingjuan Xuan, Lijie Fan, Qin Yu, Zhigao Liu, Cuihua Gu, Shouzhou Zhang, Yaling Wang, and Yamei Shen

, flavanone, flavanol, chalcone, isoflavone, dihydroflavonol, aurone, and proanthocyanidin ( Hao et al., 2015 ; Tahara, 2007 ). Anthocyanins confer a diverse range of flower colors, including orange, red to purple, and violet ( Tanaka et al., 2008 ), thus

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Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall

first harvest period ( Fig. 1 ). Table 2. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) on flower stem length of field-grown ‘Toreador Red’ celosia, ‘Camelot White’ foxglove, ‘Bouquet Purple’ sweet william, ‘Summer Pastels’ yarrow, and ‘Benary’s Giant Scarlet

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Joshua H. Kardos, Carol D. Robacker, Michael A. Dirr, and Timothy A. Rinehart

stems, and lacecap or mophead inflorescences 8 to 25 cm in diameter on 1 to 2 m high and wide plants. Flower color in H. macrophylla ranges from white to pink to purple to blue. Hydrangea angustipetala , native to Japan, China, and Taiwan, is

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Richard O. Kelly, Zhanao Deng, and Brent K. Harbaugh

Petunia is considered to be the first cultivated bedding plant. It is the product of complex breeding begun in the 19th century that used two South American species with white ( Petunia axillaris ) and purple flowers ( Petunia integrifolia

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Paul M. Lyrene

-872 have black skins and bright red flesh. Of the F 1 plants evaluated for flesh color, all 10 seedlings with V. stamineum FL13-872 as pollen parent had some internal pigmentation, the intensity varying from dark purple for two seedlings, bright red for

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Madeline W. Olberg and Roberto G. Lopez

‘Sanguna Patio Red’, developed at a similar or hastened rate when grown at an MDT of 15 °C with a RZH set point of 27 °C as when grown at an MDT of 20 °C. Time to flower of ‘Potunia Plus Purple’ and ‘Sun Spun Lavender Star’ plants grown at an MDT of 15 °C