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Carlos Efraín Reyes-González, José Pablo Torres-Morán, Blanca Catalina Ramírez-Hernández, Liberato Portillo, Enrique Pimienta-Barrios, and Martha Isabel Torres-Morán

morphological traits measured were leaf width, leaf length, and mesophyll thickness to detect changes in leaf size. To obtain leaf data for shrub plants, the leaf partial hardening part was chosen, and for rosette shape, the middle part leaf, not the apical and

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Takanori Kuronuma and Hitoshi Watanabe

). Consequently, the physiological and morphological traits of the plants are key to understanding the environmental benefits of green roofs. However, the comparative investigation of physiological and morphological traits of green roof plants is limited

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Jasmine J. Mah, David Llewellyn, and Youbin Zheng

HBs alter both light quantity and quality ( Faust et al., 2014 ; Llewellyn et al., 2013 ), the extent to which altered light quality beneath HBs contributes to changes in plant morphology is unknown. Research into the factors of the light environment

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Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez, and Neil S. Mattson

letter are not statistically different by Tukey’s honestly significant difference test at P ≤ 0.05, error bars indicate ± se . Effects of transplant week and production environment on growth and morphology. Bedding plants are considered high

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Zoë E. Gardner, Lorna Lueck, and Lyle E. Craker*

Black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L.; syn. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt], a plant native to the eastern United States, is believed to have been used as a medicinal by Native Americans for thousands of years. Currently, the root of the species is popular as a herbal remedy for the relief of menopausal symptoms. Recent estimates suggest that over 90% of the black cohosh sold is collected from the wild, resulting in an unsustainable harvest of ≈9 million individual plants per year. This study investigated the morphological variation of the plant at the population and species levels to assist plant breeders working on domestication and government agencies responsible for conservation of the species. Examination of leaves and flowers suggest morphological of the species is relatively low, but that several populations have unique morphological characteristics.

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M. G. Karlsson, J. W. Werner, and H.C.H. McIntyre

The effect of temperature during the initial long day period on morphology and plant dry weight was determined for Begonia × hiemalis `Hilda'. Multistem cuttings were planted in 10 cm pots and grown at 13°, 16°, 19°, 22°, 25° or 28°C. The day length was 16 hours at an irradiance level of 280 ± 20 μmol·m-2s-1. After 21 days, the plants were moved to a greenhouse maintained at 20° ± 2°C and short days of 10 hours at 125 ± 20 μmol·m-2s-1. The plants were grown under short days for 14 days and then moved to a day length of 16 hours. At data collection 21 days later (56 days from planting), plant height averaged 185 mm for plants initially grown at 13°, 16°, 19° or 22°C while pants originally grown at 25° and 28°C were 40 and 78 mm shorter than plants started at lower temperatures. The mean number of shoots was 4 on plants exposed to 16°, 19°, 22° or 25°C during early development and decrease to 3 shoots for plants grown initially at 13° or 28°C. The average flower number on the main shoot was similar for plants first exposed to low and intermediate temperatures but decreased rapidly to 0 for plants with early exposure to 28°C. Plants in treatments with early temperatures of 19° or 22°C had the largest above ground dry weight at an average 460 mg.

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Neil L. Heckman, Garald L. Horst, and Roch E. Gaussoin

Buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] is a warm-season perennial grass native to the North American Great Plains region and has been used as a low-maintenance turfgrass. Turf-type buffalograsses are available and are commonly used on nonirrigated land. Our objectives were to determine the deepest planting depth of burrs that would allow acceptable emergence, and to evaluate planting depth effects on buffalograss seedling morphology. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted in Fall 2000. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with 4 replications and a 3 (cultivar) × 6 (planting depth) factorial treatment arrangement. Results showed that buffalograss emergence decreased as planting depth increased. All cultivars had <10% total emergence at planting depths >50 mm. Emergence rate indices were greatest when planting depth was 13 mm and were significantly lower at planting depths of 51 and 76 mm. Average coleoptile length was 11 mm. Coleoptile length was similar between all planting depths except for the 13 mm depth which resulted in 9-mm-long coleoptile. Subcoleoptile internode length increased with planting depth up to 38 mm. Planting depths deeper than 38 mm did not significantly increase subcoleoptile internode length.

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Devdutt Kamath, Yun Kong, Chevonne Dayboll, and Youbin Zheng

because of increased environmental concerns ( Bergstrand, 2017 ). In recent years, light spectral quality has been used as an alternative for modifying plant morphology for different production purposes, especially in controlled environments ( Clifford et

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Christopher J. Currey, Veronica A. Hutchinson, and Roberto G. Lopez

propagation of a broader range of specialty herbaceous annual bedding plants has not been reported. Therefore, our objectives were to quantify the impact of DLI during propagation on growth, morphology, and quality of several vegetatively propagated annual

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James R. Cooksey, Brian A. Kahn, and James E. Motes

Nontreated seed, primed seed, and transplants were compared for effects on stand establishment, plant morphology, and yield of paprika pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Nontreated seed was satisfactory for stand establishment, although primed seed had the potential to provide greater initial stands. When populations were made equal by thinning, there were few differences in stem and leaf dry weight, fruit yield, or plant morphology attributed to seed treatment. Generally, morphology of plants established by direct seeding was favorable for mechanical harvest. Using transplants did not result in higher marketable fruit yields than direct seeding in 2 of 3 years. When compared to plants established by direct seeding, three trends were consistent across all 3 years for plants established by transplanting: 1) they were more massive, 2) they had larger vertical fruiting planes, and 3) they had more branches. These traits increase the difficulty of mechanical harvest and create the potential for more leaves and stems (trash) in the harvested product. Thus, transplanting is not recommended for stand establishment of paprika pepper intended for mechanical harvest.