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., 2007 ), and leaf mineral accumulation ( Wu et al., 2008 ), but no information has been reported for nonheading Chinese cabbage. Plant height is one of the important agronomic traits for plant breeding in nonheading Chinese cabbage and is affected by

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. ) ( Nemli et al., 2014 ), and heat tolerance in cowpea ( Lucas et al., 2013 ). Some of the major agronomic traits of interest in spinach are bolting, plant height, and leaf erectness. Bolting is an important trait to consider in relation to developing

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these evaluations were based on data from one site over multiple years. Size categories based on plant height at maturity were first proposed by Egolf and Andrick (1978) . Johnson and Dix (1993) pointed out that “at maturity” is a vague term that

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A research collaboration between Clemson Univ. and Mitsui Chemicals, Japan, has been established to develop and test photoselective greenhouse covers that can filter out far-red (FR) light and control plant height with minimal use of chemicals. The effects of polymethyl methacylate (PMMA) filters containing FR-intercepting dyes were evaluated on watermelon, pepper, chrysanthemum, and tomato to select an optimum dye concentration. As the dye concentration increased, FR interception increased, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) decreased, and phytochrome photoequilibrium increased from 0.72 to 0.82. Light transmitted through photoselective filters reduced plant height effectively in all species tested. However, watermelon was the most responsive (50% height reduction) and chrysanthemum was the least responsive (20% height reduction) to filtered light. Tomato and peppers had an intermediate response. In watermelons, total shoot dry weight was reduced over 25% compared to the control plants, with a progressive decrease in shoot weight as the dye concentration increased. The specific stem dry weight was gradually reduced as the dye concentration increased. Specific leaf dry weight was slightly reduced under filters, suggesting that smaller plants as opposed to a reduction in dry matter production primarily caused total dry weight reduction. Light transmitted through filters reduced percentage dry matter accumulation into stems from 27% to 18% and increased dry matter accumulation into leaves from 73% to 82%. Photoselective filters are effective in controlling height similarly to chemical growth regulators. Considering the PAR reduction by increase in dye concentration, a dye concentration that gives a light reduction of 25% or 35% may be optimum for commercial development of photoselective films.

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Abstract

Chemical control of plant height has been achieved for many herbaceous and woody species. Horticultural practices in the greenhouse, orchard, and landscape have been altered to include the use of numerous compounds, the main function of which is to eliminate overgrowth. The problems encountered in selecting and using even the registered materials cannot be readily generalized since each compound presents special difficulties. Nevertheless, for the purpose of this review, 7 challenges to effective use usually presented by all compounds will be discussed, namely: 1) identifying the primary cause of inhibition of stem elongation; 2) timing the application of compounds to the appropriate stage of plant development; 3) determining the best method of application; 4) determining the optimum dosage, formulation, and frequency of application; 5) testing for cumulative phytotoxicity; 6) noting species specificity; and 7) taking note of potential environmental effects. Many chemicals have been made available for testing, but relatively few of them are registered expressly for control of overgrowth (Fig. 1).

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Salpiglossis sinuata R. et P., a floriferous member of the Solanaceae, was studied for potential as a flowering potted plant when modified by growth retardants. Seedlings of an inbred line P-5 were covered with black cloth for an 8-hour photoperiod to permit vegetative growth to ≈16 -cm-diameter rosettes. Plants were then exposed to an 18-hour photoperiod for the duration of study. Flowering occurred 40 days after the plants were transferred to long days. Neither spray applications of uniconazole at 10, 20, 40, or 100 ppm, nor chlormequat chloride at 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm significantly retarded plant height. Applications of daminozide, ranging in concentration from 1000 to 5000 ppm, alone and in combination with chlormequat chloride, were effective at retarding plant height; however, concomitant restriction of corolla diameter was frequently observed. Chemical names used: 2-chloro- N,N,N -trimethylethanaminium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); and (E) -1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) -1-penten-3-01 (uniconazole).

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Field studies were conducted during 1992 and 1993 to determine the effect of six monthly planting dates from April to September on gas exchange, plant height, and leafy fresh and dry yields of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.). Vegetative growth was satisfactory for May to August planting. Seeds planted in April failed to germinate due to low soil temperatures. Plant growth was significantly reduced in the September planting possibly due to low fall temperatures and shortened day length. Soil and air temperatures 25 °C or higher promoted optimal stand establishment and growth. The vegetative growth of June seeded amaranth took place during the warmest part of the summer and as a result had maximum CO2 exchange rate (CER), plant height, and leafy fresh and dry yields. The relationship between planting date and CER, transpiration rate (E), stomatal conductance (gs), plant height, and leafy fresh and dry yields was quadratic, while a cubic equation provided best fit between the planting date and internal leaf CO2 concentration (Ci). The results suggest that it is possible to stagger the planting of Amaranthus tricolor in the southeastern United States to assure availability of fresh leafy greens throughout the summer. However, the crop produces maximum leaf biomass when grown during the warmest part of the summer.

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Abstract

Various rates of ancymidol granular incorporated, granular broadcast, soil drench, and foliar spray treatments were tested on 7 breeding plant species. Generally, treatment of media affected plant height more than foliar sprays. Media treatments reduced height linearly, with increasing rates reducing plant height. Effects were similar for Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schultz and Pelargonium × hortorum L.H. Bailey plants. Height of Targetes erecta L. plants was controlled most effectively by 311 to 622 mg a.i. m−3 drenches or granular incorporated. Begonia semperflorens - cultorum Hort., and Antirrhinum majus L. plant height was best controlled with granular incorporated ancymidol at rates of 155 to 622 mg a.i. and 311 to 1243 mg a.i. m−3, respectively. Germination of Tagetes and Pelargonium seed was unaffected by granular incorporated ancymidol at 78 to 311 mg a.i. m−3. Chemical names used: a-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol).

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Abstract

Flowering time, plant height and weight of Zinnia elegans Jacq were reduced by 4 weeks of 9 hour photoperiods. Multiple application of butanedioic acid mono-2, 2 dimethyl-hydrazide (daminozide) reduced plant height and flower diameter but increased time to flower without affecting fresh weight while ancymidol restricted height and fresh weight but not time to flower.

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The influence of removal of specific wavelengths [red (R), blue (B), and farred (FR)] from sunlight on the height of chrysanthemum plants was investigated by overlaying Roscolux™ colored acetate films on 4% CuSO4 or water (control) spectral filters. CuSO4 filters removed FR wavelengths and significantly reduced plant height and internode length compared to control plants that received B, R, and FR wavelengths of light. Plants grown under Roscolux blue filters did not receive R light and were significantly taller compared to plants from any other treatments. Plants grown under Roscolux red filters did not receive B light and were significantly shorter compared to plants from other treatments. Leaf area, leaf dry weight, and stem dry weight were highest in plants grown under Roscolux red and control filter combination. The amount of leaf chlorophyll and the ratio of Chl A: Chl B was highest in plants grown under Roscolux blue filters. In general, plants that received FR light (control + film) were taller than the plants that did not receive FR light in the corresponding (CuSO4 + film) filter combination. The influence of removal of specific wavelengths on plant height control and developmental physiology will be discussed.

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