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Abstract

Small (0.5 mm high) shoot tips of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Giant #4 Indianapolis White’ were grown on Murashige-Skoog medium containing various levels of kinetin, NAA, and GA3. Formation of roots, single or multiple shoots, plantlets and friable, hard or leafy callus depended on the hormone levels used. Multiple shoots and green leafy callus were produced on medium containing 2.0 mg/l kinetin and 0.02 mg/l NAA. The leafy callus was suitable for subculture and subsequent reorganization of plantlets. Multiple shoots were rooted and grown into normal plants or were used to start new cultures which formed more multiple shoots. This technique will be useful for storage and propagation of Chrysanthemum and especially for detection and rapid multiplication of virus-free plants.

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-generation sequencing platforms with enzyme-based genome reduction ( Elshire et al., 2011 ; Morishige et al., 2013 ; Spindel et al., 2013 ). The goals of this research were to study phenotypes of root and shoot traits in an F 2 interspecific population ( S

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occur at random by a natural process such as transposon activity and problems with DNA repair ( Leroy and Leon, 2000 ; Wessler, 2001 ). A mutation in one cell of a layer of the shoot apical meristem increases by mitosis and produces a mutated sector

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experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications of each Se treatment in separate containers holding six plants each. Plants were harvested before anthesis 14 d after Se treatments were initiated. Shoots were triple-rinsed with

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Leaf emergence was studied on main and first-order shoots of peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees belonging to nine standard cultivars, during their first growing season. The number of emerged leaves was recorded on main shoots (originating from the grafted buds) and on first-order shoots (inserted directly on main shoots). Similarly shaped leaf emergence curves were observed on main and first-order shoots for all the cultivars. Leaf emergence rate decreased gradually as the number of leaves increased. The number of emerged leaves could be modeled as a monomolecular function of accumulated thermal units. Significant differences were found between cultivars in a multiple analysis of variance of the model parameters, for main and first-order shoots. The ranking of the cultivars was similar for both types of shoots. Leaf emergence rate was lower on first-order shoots than on main shoots. Differentiating between shoot types is necessary for a reliable comparison of genotypes.

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A new in vitro protocol was developed for multiple bud induction and plant regeneration from embryonic axis explants of four common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and two tepary bean (P. acutifolius A. Gray) lines. The explants were prepared from two embryo sizes, 3 to 4 mm and 5 to 7 mm, corresponding to pods collected after 15 and 25 days from flowering, respectively. The embryonic axis was cultured on Gamborg's B5 basal medium with 0, 5, 10, or 20 μm BA in combinations with 0, 1, or 2 μm NAA. The cultures were maintained at 24 to 25C under continuous light or incubated in darkness for 2 weeks followed by continuous light before transfer to the secondary B5 medium (0 or 2 μm BA or 2 μm BA plus 4 μm GA3). Adventitious roots or a single shoot with roots formed on the explants cultured on media without plant growth regulators. Multiple buds were induced on all BA media, but more were produced with 5 or 10 μm for most lines. Dark incubation greatly enhanced multiple bud initiation. Shoot buds were not produced on media containing NAA alone or in combinations with BA. On the secondary medium, six to eight shoots per explant for common bean and up to 20 shoots per explant from tepary bean were observed after 3 weeks. Mature, fertile plants were produced from these shoots. Chemical names used: benzyladenine (BA); 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Spring frosts are usual in many of Spain's fruit-growing areas, so it is common to insure crops against frost damage. After a frost, crop loss must be evaluated, by comparing what crop is left with the amount that would have been obtained under normal conditions. Potential crop must be evaluated quickly through the use of measurements obtainable at the beginning of the tree's growth cycle. During the years 1997 through 1999 and in 86 commercial plots of peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], the following measurements were obtained: trunk cross-sectional area (TCA, cm2), trunk cross sectional area per hectare (TCA/ha), estimated total shoot length per trunk cross-sectional area (SLT, shoot m/cm2 TCA), crop density (CD, amount of fruit/cm2 TCA), fruit weight (FW, g), yield efficiency (YE, kg of fruit/cm2 TCA), yield per tree (Y, kg fruit/tree) and days between full bloom and harvest (BHP, days). CD and average FW were related to the rest of the variables through the use of multiple regression models. The models which provided the best fit were CD = SLT - TCA/ha and FW = SLT + BHP - CD. These models were significant, consistent, and appropriate for all three years. The models' predictive ability was evaluated for 32 different plots in 2001 and 2002. Statistical analysis showed the models to be valid for the forecast of orchards' potential yield efficiency, so that they represent a useful tool for early crop prediction and evaluation of losses due to late frosts.

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Genotypic variation and horticultural potential of Alnus maritima [Marsh.] Nutt. (seaside alder), a large shrub or small tree found naturally in only three small, disjunct populations, have not been studied. We examined effects of population of origin and environment on seed germination and growth and morphology of seedlings. The first experiment showed that 6 weeks of cold stratification optimized germination of half-sibling seeds from Oklahoma at 73.2%. When this treatment was applied to multiple groups of half-siblings from all populations in a second experiment, seeds from Oklahoma had a higher germination percentage (55.0%) than seeds from Georgia (31.4%) and the Delmarva Peninsula (14.7%). In a third experiment, morphology and growth of multiple groups of half-siblings from all three populations were compared in one environment. Leaves of seedlings from Oklahoma were longer (12.8 cm) and more narrow (2.15 length to width ratio) than leaves of seedlings from Georgia (12.0 cm long; ratio = 1.76) and the Delmarva Peninsula (11.6 cm long; ratio = 1.86). Seedlings from Oklahoma and Georgia accumulated dry weight at higher rates (181 and 160 mg·d-1, respectively) than seedlings from Delmarva (130 mg·d-1), while seedlings from Oklahoma and Delmarva were more densely foliated (0.72 and 0.64 leaves and lateral shoots per centimeter of primary stem, respectively) than those from Georgia (0.46 per cm). These differences indicate genetic divergence among the three disjunct populations and the potential to exploit genetic variation to select horticulturally superior A. maritima for use in managed landscapes.

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A simulation model for determining flower bud phenological stages and fruit growth as a function of daily maximum and minimum temperatures was developed for `Montmorency' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). The models were developed and tested with observations collected in the three major sour cherry production areas in Michigan located in northwestern, western central, and southwestern sections of the lower peninsula. Observations of flower bud phenology and fruit diameter were collected at 3- to 7-day intervals, in spurs and terminal shoots across multiple years. Nonlinear equations using accumulation of growing degree-days (base 4 °C) as an independent variable were fitted to observed flower bud phenological stages and fruit diameter, expressed as percentage of final fruit diameter. Simulated bud phenology stages were in agreement with observed data. Mean differences of simulated vs. observed dates of early phenological stages in the three production areas were between 4 and 1 days for side green and near 0 days for tight cluster, while during later stages (e.g., first bloom and full bloom) mean differences ranged from -2 to 0 days. Means differences of predicted fruit diameter were in the range of 0 to -3 days. Needing only daily temperature data, these simulation models have potential applicability in improving the timing and efficiency of management decisions related to crop phenology, such as pest control, fertilization, and irrigation.

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for the additional mitigating effects of paint in reducing diurnal and spatial temperature variability in young persian walnut extension shoots. Painting treatments offer multiple benefits including delaying budbreak, limiting NSC depletion associated

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