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Xing Yuxian, Wang Xiufeng, and Athanasios P. Papadopoulos

A new multilayer soilless culture system for greenhouse tomato production is described. Experiments over two spring seasons and one winter season demonstrated faster plant growth rate, higher dry matter productivity, higher fruit yield, and better fruit quality with the multilayer soilless culture system compared to the traditional soil-based culture system. The multilayer soilless culture system is suggested as a replacement of the soil-based production system to achieve significant yield improvement in greenhouse tomato production.

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M.A. Kasrawi, N. Khraishi, and Y. Tabaza

A greenhouse experiment was conducted over two growing seasons to study the physical and mechanical properties of a recycled multilayer plastic cover and its effect on the production of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. Two experimental greenhouses were constructed, one covered with recycled multilayer film and the other with conventional virgin monolayer film. The air temperature under both covers was similar; the soil temperature in the recycled multilayer house was a few degrees lower in the afternoon hours to midnight than in the virgin monolayer house. The recycled multilayer film retained its strength and elasticity over a useful service life of 7 months (one growing season), after which severe degradation occurred as manifested by a 50% loss of elongation at break. During the useful lifetime of the film, haziness, light scattering, and light transmission of the recycled film was similar to the conventional film. The thermal analysis of the recycled film revealed a low stability against thermo-oxidative degradation and the infrared analysis indicated the presence of a measurable amount of degradation products, mainly carbonyl groups, in the recycled film in comparison with conventional film. During the useful lifetime of recycled film, yield components of the tomato crop were identical to the conventional film in both growing seasons. In conclusion, waste plastic recycling offers an attractive solution to nuisance environmental problems. However, the useful lifetime of recycled films needs to be improved.

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Kellie J. Walters, Bridget K. Behe, Christopher J. Currey, and Roberto G. Lopez

697 m 2 , respectively. Firms produced crops in greenhouses (64%), indoors in multilayer (31%) or single-layer (7%) facilities, and hoop houses or high tunnels (29%; data not shown). Fig. 1. The area of production dedicated to hydroponics per producer

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Joshua R. Gerovac, Joshua K. Craver, Jennifer K. Boldt, and Roberto G. Lopez

the genus Brassica have become a popular choice due to the ease of germination, relatively short production time (7 to 21 d), and wide offering of intense flavors and colors ( Xiao et al., 2012 ). Several commercial growers are currently producing

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Wesley C. Randall and Roberto G. Lopez

seedlings grown under SSL to those grown under SL in a greenhouse providing the same DLI. The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify the effects of SL from HPS lamps and LED arrays compared with a SSL multilayer production system from LED arrays

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Joshua K. Craver, Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez, and Dean A. Kopsell

more efficient lighting methods has benefited the introduction of multilayer production on shelving units using SS lighting ( Gerovac et al., 2016 ; Goto, 2012 ). With the introduction of these technologies, the manipulation of plant products for

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Francisca López-Granados, M. Teresa Gómez-Casero, José M. Peña-Barragán, Montserrat Jurado-Expósito, and Luis García-Torres

agricultural use represents about 85% of the total water demand, and irrigated crop production constitutes a major proportion of the country's economy ( Montesinos and Bea, 2008 ). Strategic management of crop irrigation has relevant agro

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Gene A. Giacomelli and William J. Roberts

The diversity of coverings for the greenhouse and other plant production structures has increased dramatically during the past 4 decades. This has resulted from the availability of new types of covering materials and enhancements of previously existing materials, as well as the demands for technological improvements within the expanding controlled environment agricultural industry. The types of coverings currently available are dominated by plastics. These range from traditional glass to the recent advent of polymer plastics, such as thin films or multilayer rigid thermoset plastic panels. Available enhancements such as ultraviolet radiation (UV) degradation inhibitors, infrared radiation (IR) absorbency, and anti-condensation drip surfaces, as well as their physical and spectral properties are discussed. The selection of specific covering alternatives has implications for the greenhouse superstructure and its enclosed crop production system.

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Hongmei Xia, Wenbin Zhen, Dongyang Chen, and Wen Zeng

al., 2019 ). Compared with the single-layer fruit paper bag, the multilayer fruit paper bag has been used more widely, because it provides larger lightproof property and lower temperature for better coloration of fruits ( Zhao and Wu, 2015 ). The

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Chung-Liang Chang and Ming-Fong Sie

research on methods to enhance production efficiency of sunflowers and to stabilize sunflower production. This study used a multilayer fuzzy inference engine in conjunction with expert knowledge to establish a model and control strategies for the growth of