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Kristin E. Gibson, Alexa J. Lamm, Fallys Masambuka-Kanchewa, Paul R. Fisher, and Celina Gómez

Indoor farms, which are sometimes termed plant factories or vertical farms, are controlled-environment systems that enable year-round plant production and offer significant opportunities to help address global challenges in agriculture, such as

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Yuyao Kong, Ajay Nemali, Cary Mitchell, and Krishna Nemali

., 2017 ). Leafy greens, such as lettuce, are among the group of popular crops for indoor farming ( Kozai, 2013 ). Crops are produced using electric lighting for an average of 16 h·d −1 ( Agrilyst, 2017 ) in indoor farms. Thus, electrical energy-use costs

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Michael A. Gold, Mihaela M. Cernusca, and Larry D. Godsey

( USDA, 2004 , 2006 ), the number of shiitake mushroom growers with at least 200 logs in production or some commercial indoor growing area increased from 132 in 2001–02, to 134 in 2002–03, to 146 in 2003–04, to 164 in 2004–05, and to 176 in 2005

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Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, and Joseph Masabni

In recent years, food production under controlled environments, especially at vertical farms (VF), has been gaining attention due to the increasing world population, urbanization, global climate change, competition for resources (e.g., land, water

Open access

Qingwu Meng, Jennifer Boldt, and Erik S. Runkle

partially substituted with G radiation at various B PFD s in the present study. In addition, indoor vertical farms and greenhouses are two major systems for producing crops in controlled environments, but few studies have compared their crop yield and

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta, Paul Fisher, and Celina Gómez

According to a national gardening survey published in 2018, over 77% of U.S. households are involved in gardening activities, and 30% of those activities take place indoors ( NGA, 2018 ). Indoor food gardening, which integrates the production of

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta, Paul R. Fisher, and Celina Gómez

novice hydroponic gardeners ( Resh, 2015 ). For example, tomato requires a considerably higher daily light integral (DLI) than most leafy greens and herbs, making production challenging under typical indoor light levels and depending on the season and

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Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, and Joseph G. Masabni

transplants ( Kozai et al., 2015 ). For example, AeroFarms, an enterprise specializing on indoor farming, built its ninth farm in Newark, NJ, and is the world’s largest indoor vertical farm based on annual output ( AeroFarms, 2017 ). As one of the most popular

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta and Celina Gómez

The increasing preference for living within city limits poses unique challenges for the continued development of productive green spaces. Indoor food gardening, which integrates edible production with indoor farming at a noncommercial scale

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Heidi M. Wollaeger, Kristin L. Getter, and Bridget K. Behe

, ethnicity, marital status, education, and household income. Table 1. The likelihood to purchase attributes (species, price, and production method) with their respective levels for the three surveys (outdoor or indoor flowering plants in 10-cm pots or 30-cm