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Chiwon W. Lee, Keun Ho Cho, Larry J. Cihacek and Robert W. Stack

The influence of calcium nitrate fertilization on the storage characteristics of carrot (Daucus carota) roots was investigated. Plants of `Navajo' carrots grown under irrigation were sprayed with a 2% solution of Ca(NO3)2 4H2O at a rate of 50 kg/ha Ca 10 days before harvest. Quality of carrot roots stored at 5 °C was evaluated monthly for sweetness, tissue electrolyte leakage, disease development and visual characteristics. For disease development, the crown portion of the carrot roots was inoculated with an ascospore solution (2 × 109 spores/mL) of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) before storage. When determined after 1 month of storage, percent tissue electrolyte leakage in the Ca-treated carrots decreased 52% as compared to that obtained from the control. Sugar contents of the cortex and xylem tissues were not affected by calcium nitrate fertilization. Changes in other quality parameters of carrot roots for an extended storage period, including white mold development, will be presented. Initial findings of this research suggest that foliar calcium feeding at the final stage of plant growth may enhance the quality of carrot roots during storage.

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Danqing Li, Jiao Zhang, Jiaping Zhang, Kang Li and Yiping Xia

research from related herbaceous species and cultivars that differ obviously in foliar habits. Green period characteristics during winter green-down and spring green-up deserve more attention for most herbaceous ornamental perennials because they contribute

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Thomas E. Marler and Yasmina Zozor

Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and mineral nutrient relations responses of Annona squamosa seedlings to mild salinity were studied in sand culture in five experiments during 1990, 1991, and 1993. Trees were irrigated with a complete nutrient solution (control) or with this solution amended to 3 or 6 dS·m-1 with sea salt. Inhibition of net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance of CO2, and transpiration was apparent within 2 weeks of initiating salinity treatments, and gas exchange continued to decline until day 30 to 35. The diurnal pattern of leaf gas exchange was not altered by increased salinity. Salinity reduced CO2, light energy, and water-use efficiencies. Salinity sometimes reduced the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence below that of the control, and this response was highly dependent on the ambient light conditions that preceded the measurements. Dark respiration was unaffected by salinity stress. Root zone salinity of 3 dS·m-1 administered for 52 days did not influence foliar sodium concentration or the ratio of sodium to potassium, but increased chloride concentration and decreased nitrogen concentration. The sodium response indicated that some form of exclusion or compartmentation occurred. Salinity reduced osmotic potential of root tissue but did not influence foliar osmotic or predawn xylem potential. These results indicate that A. squamosa is sensitive to salinity stress, and that the responses to salinity are consistent with other salt-sensitive woody perennial species.

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James L. Gibson and Brian E. Whipker

Twenty-six ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) cultivars were grown in 8-inch (20.8-cm) diameter pots during Fall 1998 to classify their foliage traits and determine their response to the plant growth regulator (PGR) daminozide. Cultivar vigor was classified by height. Foliage characteristics were described and cultivars of ornamental cabbage, notched ornamental kale, and curly ornamental kale were selected for retail or wholesale markets based on the shortest number of days until a significant center color change, the largest center color diameter, and attractive foliage characteristics. Two cultivars treated with 2,500 ppm (mg·L-1) daminozide and eight cultivars treated with 5,000 ppm were significantly smaller in height compared to nontreated plants. Plants were treated 6 weeks after sowing, and the response to the PGRs may have been diminished by the age of the plant. Therefore, to further investigate PGR efficacy, seven outstanding cultivars selected in 1998 were treated with 5,000 ppm daminozide or 5 ppm uniconazole 14 days after potting (4 weeks after sowing) in Fall 1999. Greater control was observed with daminozide at 5,000 ppm in 1999 with a 13% smaller plant height as compared to 9% in 1998, when compared to the nontreated control. For greater height control, PGR applications to ornamental cabbage and kale should be applied 4 weeks after sowing.

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This investigation studied the effects of foliar sprays of urea (0.5%), a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulfates from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively, and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm), as well as number and date of sprays, on the number of fruit/tree, average fruit weight, and yield/tree in kilograms. Spraying `Washington' navel orange trees with urea and/or micronutrients significantly increased the number of fruit/tree, average fruit weight, and yield/tree expressed in kilograms. However, the treatment including both of them was the most effective in 1991–92 and 1992–93. Application of GA3 and NAA effectively increased the value of the three traits compared with the control; however, spraying the trees with NAA was responsible for higher fruit numbers, while GA3 was more effective in increasing fruit weight. Two sprays of urea, micronutrients, and NAA (or GA3), the first applied 3 weeks before flowering and the second 4 weeks after fruit set, were more effective than spraying once at any of the two dates in producing high numbers of fruit/tree, average fruit weight and yield per tree by weight.

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Abby ShalekBriski, B. Wade Brorsen, Jon T. Biermacher, Charles T. Rohla and Will Chaney

( Monelliopsis pecanis )] was necessary. Based on trap counts, foliar chemical sprays were applied by air-blast sprayer to control for pecan nut casebearer and pecan weevil. Pecan scab ( Fusicladium effusum ) was not present in this orchard. Glyphosate

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Ahmed M. Akl, Abdel-Fattah M. Eid and Mohamed Y. Hegab

This investigation was carried out during the experimental seasons of 1991–92 and 1992–93 on 25-year-old `Washington' navel orange trees grown in an orchard at Beni Suef (≈120 km south of Cairo). This part of the investigation studied the effect of foliar spraying urea (0.5%), a mixture of Zn (0.4%), Mn (0.3%), Fe (0.5%), and Cu (0.3%) in sulfates from 23% Zn, 28% Mn, 19% Fe, and 30% Cu, respectively, and two growth regulators (GA3 at 25 ppm and α-NAA at 10 ppm) on some vegetative aspects and leaf content of some macro- and micronutrients. The investigation also included the effect of number and date of spraying (one spray 3 weeks before flowering, one spray 4 weeks after fruit set, and two sprays at the two dates) on the studied traits. The results showed that the overall treatments included two sprays of urea, micronutrients (Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu) and NAA at 10 ppm achieved the highest values for average leaf area and shoot diameter in both seasons. The treatment on shoot length was more effective when GA3 replaced NAA. Leaf analysis showed that the application of any of the nutrients was responsible for a pronounced increase in leaf content of that element, but reduced the contents of others. Growth regulator treatments lowered leaf content of the determined elements. However, all other treatments in this study reduced leaf content of P and K.

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Xing-Zheng Fu, Fei Xing, Li Cao, Chang-Pin Chun, Li-Li Ling, Cai-Lun Jiang and Liang-Zhi Peng

conventionally used methods, soil or foliar fertilization. However, soil-applied Zn is less available to plants due to its low mobility and high soil fixation ( Chapman, 1968 ; Razzaq et al., 2013 ). In addition, due to its much lower labor and time cost, foliar

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Sohrab Davarpanah, Ali Tehranifar, Gholamhossein Davarynejad, Mehdi Aran, Javier Abadía and Reza Khorassani

the effects of foliar sprays with a nano N fertilizer and urea on the physical and chemical characteristics of pomegranate fruits. Pomegranate is one of the most important crops in Iran and is cultivated in many areas. The pomegranate sweet

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Diana Carolina Núñez-López, Augusto Ramírez-Godoy and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

control of arthropods ( Glenn et al., 1999 ). It has been found that foliar applications of kaolin have a positive effect on Hemiptera control such as Agonoscena targionii (Psyllidae) in pistachio ( Saour, 2005 ), Diaphorina citri (Liviidae) in citrus