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Gerry Neilsen, Frank Kappel, and Denise Neilsen

of the two measurement trees in each treatment and replicate was randomly selected for dormant spur removal (extinction spur thinning). In late dormancy (early April), half of the fruiting spurs on 2-year and older wood was removed by pruning flush to

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Michael L. Parker and Eric Young

Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars Spur Galagored (#42) (`Gala'), Jonagored (`Morren's'), and Red Fuji (B.C. #2) (`Fuji') on Mark rootstock and `Gala' on Malling 26 EMLA (M.26) and Malling 9 EMLA (M.9) were planted in the four major apple-production regions of western North Carolina. Three leader management techniques, weak leader renewal, snaked leader, and heading with partial terminal leaf removal (H + PTLR), were applied to five-tree plots beginning the spring after planting. Leader management techniques, weak leader renewal or H + PTLR, which involved dormant pruning or vegetation removal and an interruption in vegetative vigor, reduced total branching and yield during the third year. Fumigation with methyl bromide increased lateral branching and yield in the third year. No significant yield differences were detected for `Gala' grown on M.9, M.26, or Mark rootstocks. Trees grown in the most western region of the state, Haywood County, had smaller trees and reduced yields compared to the other three regions due to a shorter growing season.

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Mokhles A. Elsysy and Peter M. Hirst

persisted to the end of the growing season were included in analyses. Fruit were harvested and individually weighed during the commercial harvest period for each cultivar. During winter, while trees were dormant, tagged spurs were collected, bourse lengths

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Annie R. Vogel, Rachael S. White, Clark MacAllister, and Cain C. Hickey

average fruit zone leaf layer number (LLN) and cluster exposure flux availability (CEFA) in ‘Chardonnay’ at veraison and dormant pruning weight in 2017 and 2018. Table 2. Prebloom and post–fruit set leaf removal effect on the incidence and severity of

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Thomas M. Kon, James R. Schupp, H. Edwin Winzeler, and Richard P. Marini

been limited adoption of mechanical thinning practices in apple as a result of two primary factors: 1) the damage and removal of spurs; and 2) the potential to spread the fireblight pathogen Erwina amylovora . In apple, primary spur leaves emerge

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James R. Schupp, H. Edwin Winzeler, Thomas M. Kon, Richard P. Marini, Tara A. Baugher, Lynn F. Kime, and Melanie A. Schupp

accuracy and precision to dormant pruning of tall spindle apple trees. Use of the LTR to establish the level of pruning severity allows the orchard manager to set crop load potential through regulation of the canopy bearing surface. Removal of the largest

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Thomas M. Todaro and Imed E. Dami

count buds on 1-year-old spurs and noncount buds off the trunk ( Fig. 2D ). Three training systems were applied to 15 vines per treatment in a randomized complete block design with four blocks. Treatments were Fan, Fan/VSP, and VSP training systems ( Fig

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Todd C. Einhorn, Debra Laraway, and Janet Turner

were adjusted by removing reproductive buds by hand in early spring when bud development was about stage 1 (first swelling). Half of the reproductive buds per spur were removed for T1, and all but one for T2. Bud removal was performed on all spurs of

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Tiffany L. Law and Gregory A. Lang

). In our study, nonbud-selected 60° trees had more flower buds (largely spur flower buds) than nonbud-selected 45° trees. Removal of these spurs by bud selection reduced the number of meristems competing for water and nutrients, which subsequently may

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Mokhles A. Elsysy and Peter M. Hirst

DAFB. During winter, while trees were dormant, 20 tagged spurs were collected from each treatment in each block, and bourse buds were dissected under a dissecting microscope (Olympus Corp., Center Valley, PA) to determine flower formation ( Hirst and