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Soo-Hyung Kim and Bert Cregg

Crops face numerous abiotic and biotic stresses throughout their lifetimes. These environmental pressures are intensifying in the form of extreme weather events, drought, salinity, invasive insects and pathogens, and other stressors in a changing

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Maxym Reva, Custodia Cano, Miguel-Angel Herrera, and Alberto Bago

physiological equilibrium, higher yield, and healthier and more sustainable crop production are obtained ( Baum et al., 2015 ). Different studies have revealed the important role that AM may have in temperature stress alleviation ( Mathur et al., 2018 ; Zhu et

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D. Michael Glenn

Kaolin-based particle films can reduce insect, heat, PAR , and ultraviolet stress in horticultural crops because of their ability to modify the microenvironment of the plant canopy as a result of the reflective nature of the particles. Particle

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Beiquan Mou

crop resistance or tolerance to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, drought, flood, salt, pH, etc.) has not received much attention. However, that is changing as a result of the research and publicity of global warming. “Adaptive research” aiming at adapting

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T.K. Hartz

Overcoming environmental stresses during seedling establishment is crucial to successful vegetable production. In the irrigated production areas of the West stress is most often related to unfavorable temperature, soil or water salinity, or poor soil structure; it is frequently difficult to separate the effects of these stresses since they may all be present to some significant degree. Growers use a variety of techniques to ameliorate these conditions. Advances in seed priming and coating have improved seedling establishment under unfavorable temperatures, particularly for lettuce. The use of sprinkler irrigation for stand establishment has become a widespread practice; sprinkling moderates soil temperature, minimizes salinity in the zone of germination, and reduces soil crusting. By modifying bed configuration growers have been able to increase soil temperature to stimulate germination. Modifying furrow irrigation patterns can create zones of lower salinity. Various chemical treatments have proven effective in reducing soil crusting. The use of transplants is expanding for many crops, both as a means to circumvent seedling establishment problems as well as a technique to obtain earliness.

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Donald J. Garrot Jr., Michael W. Kilby, Delmar D. Fangmeier, Stephen H. Husman, and Andrew E. Ralowicz

1 Extension Plant-Water Relations Specialist. 2 Extension Horticulturist. 3 Professor. 4 Maricopa County Extension Field Crops Agent. 5 Research Associate. Research conducted at Continental, Ariz., in cooperation with Farmers Investment Corporation

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Alvan G. Gaus and George M. Greene II

Water stress in mature `Redhaven' / Lovell peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees was imposed, during the 1988 growing season. Trickle irrigation was reduced from 100% to 25% of a calculated weekly evaporation amount on 22 June, 11 July, and 8 and 27 Aug. Trees were isolated from rainfall by tents under the canopy and from horizontal water movement between root systems on 4 sides to a depth of 0.5 m by a water-proof barrier. Canopy to air temperature differentials monitored throughout the growing season were developed into 3 stress indexes: crop water stress index (CWSI); cumulative crop water stress index (CCWSI); and postharvest cumulative crop water stress index (PCCWSI). CWSI values varied from 0 to 0.6, while both CCWSI and PCCWSI increased through late Sept. Mean PCCWSI of the 22 June 25% treatment increased at a greater rate than the other treatments. Significant linear regressions were found with some of the indexes and net photosynthesis or stomatal conductance; however, the r-square values were low. In general, no linear relationships were found between either CCWSI of PCCWSI and the Index of Injury for cold hardiness.

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Stan D. Wullschleger and Derrick M. Oosterhuis

Growth-chamber studies were conducted to examine the ability of seven vegetable crops-`Blue Lake' bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), `Detroit Dark Red' beet (Beta vulgaris L.), `Burgundy' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (Moench), `Little Marvel' pea (Pisum sativum L.), `California Wonder' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), `New Zealand' spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and `Beefsteak' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)–to adjust osmotically in response to water-deficit stress. Water stress was imposed by withholding water for 3 days, and the adjustment of leaf and root osmotic potentials upon relief of the stress and rehydration were monitored with thermocouple psychrometers. Despite similar reductions in leaf water potential and stomata1 conductance among the species studied, crop-specific differences were observed in leaf and root osmotic adjustment. Leaf osmotic adjustment was observed for bean, pepper, and tomato following water-deficit stress. Root osmotic adjustment was significant in bean, okra, pea, and tomato. Furthermore, differences in leaf and root osmotic adjustment were also observed among five tomato cultivars. Leaf osmotic adjustment was not associated with the maintenance of leaf growth following water-deficit stress, since leaf expansion of water-stressed bean and pepper, two species capable of osmotic adjustment, was similar to that of spinach, which exhibited no leaf osmotic adjustment.

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T.K. Hartz

Overcoming environmental stresses during seedling establishment is crucial to successful vegetable production. In the irrigated production areas of the southwestern United States, stress most often is related to unfavorable temperature, soil or water salinity, or poor soil structure; it is frequently difficult to separate the effects of these stresses, since they may all be present to some significant degree. Growers use a variety of techniques to ameliorate these conditions. The use of sprinkler irrigation for stand establishment has become a widespread practice; sprinkling moderates soil temperature, minimizes salinity in the zone of germination, and reduces soil crusting. By modifying bed configuration, growers have been able to increase soil temperature to stimulate germination. Various chemical and physical treatments have proven effective in reducing soil crusting. The use of transplants has expanded for many crops, both as a means to circumvent seedling establishment problems and as a technique to obtain earliness.

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Thomas R. Clarke

Irrigation scheduling can be improved by directly monitoring plant water status rather than depending solely on soil water content measurements or modeled evapotranspiration estimates. Plants receiving sufficient water through their roots have cooler leaves than those that are water stressed, leading to the development of the crop water stress index, which uses hand-held infrared thermometers as tools for scheduling irrigations. However, substantial error can occur in partial canopies when a downward-pointing infrared thermometer measures leaf temperature and the temperature of exposed, hot soil. To overcome this weakness, red and near-infrared images were combined mathematically as a vegetation index, which was used to provide a crop-specific measure of vegetative cover. Coupling the vegetation index with the paired radiant surface temperature from a thermal image, a trapezoidal two-dimensional index was empirically derived capable of detecting water stress even with a low percentage of canopy cover. Images acquired with airborne sensors over subsurface drip-irrigated muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fields demonstrated the method's ability to detect areas with clogged emitters, insufficient irrigation rate, and system water leaks. Although the procedure needs to be automated for faster image processing, the approach is an advance in irrigation scheduling and water stress detection technology.