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Shana G. Brown and James E. Klett

The popular cultivar Snow Angel coral bells is a commercially important herbaceous perennial grown for its attractive white and green variegated foliage and bright pink flowers. To maintain the characteristic variegated foliage, ‘Snow Angel’ must be

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W. Garrett Owen

In the United States, coral bell ( Heuchera hybrida L.) production increased by 167% ($14.4 million USD) from 1997 to 2014 ( USDA, 1998 , 2015 ). The increasing consumer demand for this herbaceous perennial is because of their colorful foliage and

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Sean J. Markovic and James E. Klett

) at rates as low as 300 ppm ( Latimer et al., 2011 ), while ‘Silver Lode’ coral bells responded minimally to an application of 600 ppm benzyladenine for both plant height and width ( Latimer and Freeborn, 2015 ). The wide range of possible plant

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Mary Jane Clark and Youbin Zheng

. 79.38°W), five commonly grown nursery crops were selected for study, based on their economic value and relative importance to Ontario nurseries: bigleaf hydrangea, ‘Green Velvet’ boxwood, ‘Magic Carpet’ spirea, ‘Palace Purple’ coral bells, and rose of

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Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, Alicain S. Carlson, Erin P. Moody, Ingram F. McCall, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William C. Fonteno

of holding solutions and recommends the use of only a hydrator. Armitage and Laushman (2003) indicated that vase life would be from 7 to 10 d with a preservative. Coral bells ‘florists choice’. The longest vase life was obtained when hydrator and

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David J. Ballantyne

The influence of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and gibberellic acid (GA3) sprays on shoot elongation was determined for `Coral Bells' (Kurume or R. obstusum hybrid), `Fashion' (Glen Dale or R. indicum × Kurume hybrid), `Hexe' (R. obtusum × R. simsii hybrid), `Hinocrimson' (Kurume or R. obtusum hybrid), `Hinodegiri' (Kurume or R. obtusum hybrid), and `Red Wing' (Brooks hybrid) azalea. GA3 at 1 mm was more effective in stimulating shoot elongation of `Coral Bells', `Fashion', `Hinodegiri', and `Red Wing' than of `Hexe' or `Hinocrimson'. GA3 sprays were more effective in stimulating elongation when applied to plants growing at irradiance levels of 350 μmol·s-1·m-2 than to plants growing at either 200 or 100 μmol·s-1·-2. Gross photosynthesis of leaf segments was higher for a slow-growing cultivar (Hinocrimson) than for a faster-growing cultivar (Fashion). `Hinocrimson' produced stouter shoots (greater dry weight/cm) than did `Fashion'.

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Joseph Eakes and John W. Olive

Five 12- to 14- month slow release fertilizers (Osmocote 17-7-12, Sierra 16-6-10, High-N 24-4-7, Sierrablend 17-7-10, and Nutricote 16-10-10 Type 360) were incorporated into a 3:1 pine bark: peat moss potting medium at one of 4 rates (0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 kg N/m3). Plant growth of 3 azale a species, `Coral Bells' (Kurume), `Formosa' (Southern Indica), and `Pink Gumpo' (Satsuki), and monthly medium solution electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. Growth indices 180 days after applying fertilizer were greatest for plants receiving the Sierrablend and Osmocote fertilizers regardless of azalea species. Plant growth indices increased as N rate increased for the 3 azaleas, regardless of the fertilizer product. The highest media solution EC readings occurred during the first 90 days after fertilizer application for all fertilizer treatments and declined thereafter.

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Tomasz Anisko and Orville M. Lindstrom

The effect of water stress imposed at three dates in late summer and early fall on cold hardiness was examined in Rhododendron L. `Coral Bell', `Hinodegiri', and `Red Ruffle'. The persistence of the water stress-induced cold hardiness was also examined following plant recovery from the stress. Container-grown plants were exposed to three weeks of reduced water supply starting 8 Aug., 29 Aug., or 19 Sept., while control plants were well watered. Cold hardiness of leaves, lower, middle, and upper stems was evaluated with laboratory freeze tests. Reduced water supply independent of time initiated increased cold hardiness by 1 to 4C in the majority of the tested plant parts in the three cultivars. Cold hardiness of all plant parts tested strongly depended on the current water status of the plants as indicated by the stem water potential. In most cases, 3 weeks after rewatering, the cold hardiness of previously water stressed plants did not differ from that of nonstressed plants.

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Tomasz Anisko and Orville M. Lindstrom

The effect of water stress on cold hardiness was examined in evergreen azaleas, `Coral Bell' (CB), `Hinodegiri' (HD), and `Red Ruffle' (RR). Plants were well-watered between 8 Aug. and 1 Nov. (wet) or were subjected to 3 weeks of reduced water supply starting on one of three dates, 1 Aug. (dry 1), 29 Aug. (dry 2), and 19 Sept. (dry 3). Cold hardiness of leaves and lower, middle, and upper stems was tested on 29 Aug., 19 Sept., 10 Oct., 1 Nov. By the end of each 3-week period, water potential of water stressed plants reached –1.5 to –1.8 MPa compared to around –0.8 MPa of well-watered plants. Reducing the water supply significantly increased cold hardiness of all tested plant parts in all cultivars regardless of timing of watering reduction, with two exceptions, CB middle stems on 29 Aug. and HD leaves on 19 Oct. Three weeks after rewatering cold hardiness of water-stressed plants did not differ significantly from well-watered plants, except for HD plants under dry three treatment, which continued to be 1.0 (middle stems) to 4.3 (upper stems) more cold hardy.

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Tomasz Anisko and Orville M. Lindstrom

Three cultivars of evergreen azaleas, `Coral Bell', `Hinodegiri', and `Red Ruffle', were grown under four watering regimes in containers and placed outdoors or in the greenhouse. The water content of the growing medium was maintained at either 0.3 to 0.4 or 0.5 to 0.6 m3m-3 from June 16 to August 30, when half of the plants under each of these regime was switched to the other watering regime. Freeze tests were conducted on August 30 and October 9, 1993. Injury to leaves, lower, middle, and upper stems was evaluated visually. Acclimation of leaves and upper stems prior to the August test, in most cases, was not stimulated by reduced water content, while the response of lower and middle stems was cultivar and location specific. The lower water content treatment after August 30 generally increased freeze tolerance of all plant parts regardless of the previous watering regime. The higher water content treatment after August 30 either prevented or delayed acclimation.