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Shutian Tao, Danyang Wang, Cong Jin, Wei Sun, Xing Liu, Shaoling Zhang, Fuyong Gao, and Shahrokh Khanizadeh

formula using the relative 2 −ΔΔCT method ( Livak and Schmittgen, 2001 ). Each qRT-PCR analysis was performed in triplicate. Table 1. Sequence of primers to investigate the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase ( C4H ) gene expression pattern with quantitative real

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Xue Li, Chen Zang, Hang Ge, Jing Zhang, Donald Grierson, Xue-ren Yin, and Kun-song Chen

-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate:coenzyme ligase (4CL) activities in LYQ fruit. HT fruit was treated at 40 °C (in air) for 4 h and then was transferred to 0 °C; LTC fruit were stored at 5 °C for 6 d and then was

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Chun-hui Shi, Xiao-qing Wang, Xue-ying Zhang, Lian-ying Shen, Jun Luo, and Yu-xing Zhang

alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), and peroxidase (POD) (Hu et al., 2017; Mertz-Henning et al., 2015 ; Shi et al., 2019 ). Most of the enzymes in the lignin metabolic pathway are induced by light at

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Zhiyong Hu, Qing Liu, Meilian Tan, Hualin Yi, and Xiuxin Deng

sinensis + Citrus jambhiri ). C4H = cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; 4CL = 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase; CAD = cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; POD = peroxidase. Discussion Lignin is crucial for structural integrity of the cell wall and

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Ann M. Callahan, Chris Dardick, and Ralph Scorza

) with the reverse transcriptase reaction and subsequent amplification in the same tube (1-step qPCR). The four genes monitored were phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), which initiate lignin biosynthesis, caffeoyl coenzyme

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Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, Weidong Huang, and Haiying Xu

so on ( D’Onofrio et al., 2009 ; Jeong et al., 2004 ; Xu et al., 2015 ). Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. PAL = phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; C4H = cinnamate-4-hydroxylase; 4CL = 4-coumarate:CoA ligase; CHS

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Ji Tian, Zhen-yun Han, Li-ru Zhang, Ting-Ting Song, Jie Zhang, Jin-Yan Li, and Yuncong Yao

indicated as follows: PAL, phenylalanine ammonium lyase-1; C4H, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase; CHS, chalcone synthase; CHI, chalcone isomerase; F3H, flavanone 3-hydroxylase; DFR, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase; ANS, anthocyanidin synthase; GT, uridine diphosphate

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Junfang Wang, Yuxia Sun, Hengzhen Wang, Xueqiang Guan, and Lijun Wang

ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, and coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and subsequently, stilbene synthase (STS). The end product is trans -res, which may be isomerized to cis -res or transformed to trans -piceid ( trans -pd) and cis -piceid ( cis -pd) by

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Lixiang Miao, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaofang Yang, Jinping Xiao, Huiqin Zhang, Ming Jiang, Zuofa Zhang, Yuezhi Wang, and Guihua Jiang

, and their biosynthetic pathway has been extensively studied ( Lin-Wang et al., 2010 ; Medina-Puche et al., 2014 ). A previous study showed that red plastic film can activate the related enzymes (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase

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Qingling Li, Yuesheng Yang, and Hong Wu

significantly higher biomass, higher contents of the main functional compounds, e.g., caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides, higher phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase activities, thicker roots that can facilitate harvesting and considerable