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Isaac T. Mertz, Nick E. Christians and Adam W. Thoms

Many commercial turfgrass fertilizers are referred to as specialty fertilizers. These products contain nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), in addition to organic materials such as plant hormones, humic substances, amino acids (AAs), or

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Isaac T. Mertz, Nick E. Christians and Adam W. Thoms

fertilization products because of their ability to promote or improve growth over mineral nutrition only ( Ervin and Zhang, 2008 ; Schmidt et al., 2003 ). A common organic additive in specialty turfgrass fertilization products is amino acids [AA ( Schmidt, 1999

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Reza Saeedi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Amir H. Khoshgoftarmanesh and Mohammad R. Sabzalian

inorganic sources of calcium, e.g., Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O, are applied during winter or early spring production to prevent calcium deficiency ( Dole and Wilkins, 2004 ). Recently, Ca-amino acid chelates have been synthesized and distributed to supply different

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Yong Yang, Xueyong Liu, Yuanli Jiang, Zuoxiang Xiang, Qingguo Xu, Na Zhao and Bichao Shu

adjustments to adapt/tolerate salinity stress, which include the changes of free amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism. Free amino acids are fundamental compositions in the processes of protein and other growth substances synthesis, which are vital for

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Tomohiro Okada and Yoh-ichi Matsubara

the changes in amino acid constituents related to disease tolerance in mycorrhizal plants, Baltruschat and Schonbeck (1975) demonstrated that the propagation of Thielaviopsis basicola was inhibited by the increase of arginine and citrulline in

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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones and Randolph Beaudry

have been proposed to form from fatty acid degradation through β-oxidation or the lipoxygenase system ( Sanz et al., 1997 ) and BC ester precursors have been proposed to be derived from branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) degradation ( Gonda et al., 2010

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Verónica De Luca, Diego Gómez de Barreda, Antonio Lidón and Cristina Lull

, efficient, and less harmful to the environment ( Canellas et al., 2015 ). Protein hydrolysates (a mixture of peptides and amino acids) have also been positively used as biostimulants for making horticultural crops more sustainable ( Colla et al., 2015

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Jinyu Wang, Bo Yuan, Yi Xu and Bingru Huang

). Amino acid and protein metabolism are among the major metabolic processes going through adjustment during plant adaptation to heat stress ( Du et al., 2011 ; Kaplan et al., 2004 ; Yamakawa and Hakata, 2010 ). Understanding the differential changes in

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Nihad Alsmairat, Philip Engelgau and Randolph Beaudry

The synthetic and/or catabolic pathways of the amino acids valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and alanine contribute to the formation of odor-active alcohols, aldehydes, carbonyls, and esters in edible plant parts ( Azevedo et

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Franco Famiani and Robert P. Walker

abundance of each of these is dependent on the cultivar or species ( Kafkas et al., 2006 ; Whiting, 1958 ; Wrolstad et al., 1980 ). Blackberry contains a range of amino acids ( Green, 1971 ). The metabolism of organic acids/sugars and photosynthesis are