with 1 µL·L −1 1-MCP for 24 h at the respective temperatures using SmartFresh tablets (0.36% a.i., AgroFresh Inc., Dow AgroSciences) in a 4000-L plastic tent using a release and fan system supplied by the manufacturers. Untreated or treated fruit were
Jinwook Lee, In-Kyu Kang, Jacqueline F. Nock, and Christopher B. Watkins
Manuel Baez-Sañudo, Jorge Siller-Cepeda, Rosalba Contreras-Martinez, Laura Contreras-Angulo, Rosabel Velez, and Dolores Muy-Rangel
Bananas are usually harvested at the “all green” maturity stage in the country of origin and exported to main markets. Upon arrival, fruits are forced to ripen with ethylene and moved to market conditions to accelerate color change and ripening. Fruits exposed to low relative humidity conditions at market frequently induce browning of the peel and diminish quality. To protect fruits marketed under those conditions and to reduce peel browning, SmartFresh™ (1-MCP) alone or combined with two film coatings was evaluated. Banana Cavendish type fruits obtained from a warehouse at all green color stage were applied with two film coatings: 1) SemperFresh™ (1.2%); or 2) FreshSeal™ (3 °Brix). Additionally, a set of fruits were left as a control without coatings. Coated and control fruits were then exposed to 150 ppm of ethylene for 24 hours at 20 °C. When fruits reached color stage 3 (more green than yellow), 0 and 300 ppb of 1-MCP were applied for 12 hours at 22 °C. Fruits from all six treatments were stored at 22 °C and 30% to 40% relative humidity for 5 days to follow quality changes and browning development. Weight loss, firmness, color, pH, acidity, °Brix and appearance were evaluated daily. Control fruits, SmartFresh™ alone, FreshSeal™ + SmartFresh™ and both film coatings alone lost more than 10% of weight after 5 days. Only fruits treated with SemperFresh™ + SmartFresh™ reduced weight loss below 10%. Firmness tests indicated a higher force penetration due to dehydration of peel. Pronounced browning was observed on control fruits. SemperFresh™ + SmartFresh™ delayed yellow color appearance, sugar spot incidence, and peel browning development, extending shelf-life. No significant changes were observed on chemical characteristics.
James P. Mattheis
quality maintenance and avoidance of physiological disorders. Commercialization of 1-MCP as SmartFresh by AgroFresh has provided another tool for postharvest management of apple fruit. This technology has been widely adopted in a relatively short period of
Jennifer R. DeEll, Jennifer T. Ayres, and Dennis P. Murr
it can markedly reduce it ( Watkins and Nock, 2005 ). The commercial formulation of 1-MCP for use on food is SmartFresh SM (AgroFresh, Spring House, PA). Application in the United States is at a concentration of 1000 ppb 1-MCP, whereas in United
Jennifer R. DeEll, Jennifer T. Ayres, and Dennis P. Murr
can be stored longer and transported farther, thus creating new markets. As a result of these beneficial effects, worldwide commercial utilization of 1-MCP (SmartFresh; AgroFresh, Springhouse, Pa.) is increasing quickly. However, 1-MCP can also
Christopher B. Watkins
concentrations in the fruit ( Fig. 2 ) and reduced effectiveness of treatment ( Fig. 3 ). Differences among cultivars are reflected in commercial recommendations for the time between harvest and 1-MCP treatment ( SmartFresh, 2006 ). Fig. 2. Internal
Luis Pozo, Rongcai Yuan, Igor Kostenyuk, Fernando Alférez, Guang Yan Zhong, and Jacqueline K. Burns
assistance of Ana Redondo and Zhencai Wu, and the generous gift of SmartFresh® from Harlow Warner of Rohm & Haas, Inc.
Renae E. Moran
The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) for increasing effectiveness of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for maintaining firmness and preventing scald in `McIntosh' and `Cortland' apples (Malus ×domestica). AVG and 1-MCP used together maintained `McIntosh' apple firmness more than 1-MCP used alone after 120 or 200 days of controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage. AVG and 1-MCP can be used to maintain firmness of `McIntosh' when internal ethylene concentration (IEC) at harvest is as high as 240 μL·L-1, but CA storage life is limited to 4 months. AVG was not effective at increasing efficacy of 1-MCP on `Cortland' when IEC at harvest was not significantly different between AVG-treated and untreated fruit and IEC was less than 2 μL·L-1. AVG increased efficacy of 1-MCP on `Cortland' when IEC was 36 μL·L-1 in untreated fruit compared to undetectable in AVG treated fruit. 1-MCP prevented scald of `Cortland' in 1 year and reduced it to 5% or less in another year when fruit were stored 120 days. 1-MCP reduced `Cortland' scald to 34% or less after 200 days of storage.
S.R. Drake, D.C. Elfving, M.A. Drake, T.A. Eisele, S.L. Drake, and D.B. Visser
This study was conducted over two crop seasons using `Scarletspur Delicious' and `Gale Gala' apple trees (Malus ×domestica). The bioregulators aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), ethephon (ETH), and 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) were applied at various times before or after harvest. Fruit response was evaluated at harvest and after regular atmosphere (RA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage [2.0% oxygen (O2) and <2.0% carbon dioxide (CO2) at 0 °C] and quality of whole and juice apple products evaluated. AVG reduced starch loss and ethylene production, enhanced firmness, and reduced cracking in `Gale Gala,' but reduced sensory acceptance of apples and apple juice. ETH intensified starch loss, ethylene production, and reduced firmness, but did not affect `Gale Gala' fruit cracking. AVG followed by ETH reduced starch loss, ethylene production, and cracking and maintained firmness. This combination also aided in sensory acceptance of apples but reduced sensory preference of apple juice. Exposure to postharvest MCP improved flesh firmness retention and reduced ethylene production after both RA and CA storage. MCP either favored or reduced sensory acceptance of whole apples, depending on the particular season, but reduced sensory preference of apple juice. Sensory scores for `Scarletspur Delicious' apples were more strongly modified by bioregulators than were `Gale Gala' apples.
MiAe Cho, Brandon M. Hurr, Jiwon Jeong, Chaill Lim, and Donald J. Huber
ethylene produced by nonclimacteric fruits and vegetables might be sufficient to accelerate senescence and related disorders during prolonged storage. Consistent with this idea, pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; SmartFresh Quality System